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Notes CHAPTER 1: THE MATRIX OF HISPANIC SOCIETIES; RECONQUISTA AND REPOBLACION 1. Aproximacion a la historia de Espana (2nd ed.; Barcelona: Editorial Teide, 1960), trans. Joan Connelly Ullman as Approaches to the History of Spain (Berkeley-. University of California Press, 1967), p. 39. The quotation is from the English translation. 2. The extent to which the Reconquest experience shaped Spanish culture and character and in what ways provoked a lively debate among a generation of distinguished Hispanic scholars, including philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset, philosopher and philologist Americo Castro, and historians Claudio Sanchez-Albornoz and Jaime Vicens Vives. The polemics are fascinating but too prolix to review here. Joseph F. O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975), pp. 17-21, and John Ramsey, Spain: The Rise of the First World Power (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1973), pp. 49-51, summarize the issues and arguments. 3. As quoted in Alfred F. Havinghurst, ed., The Pirenne Thesis (rev. ed.; Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1969), p. viii. For a fuller treatment of Christian-Muslimrelations in the Mediterranean see Archibald R. Lewis, Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean, A.D. 500-1100 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UniversityPress, 1951), especially pp. 152-163. 4. George M. Foster, Culture and Conquest: America's Spanish Heritage (Chicago-. Quadrangle Books, 1960), pp. 28, 29. 5. Perhaps the most eloquent of many statements on this point is Claudio SanchezAlbornoz , "La Edad Media y la empresa de America," in his Espana y el Islam (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1943), pp. 181-189. 6. Primera parte de la historia general de las Indias, in Historiadores primitives de Indias , gen. ed. Don Enrique de Vedia, Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles, vols. 22, 26 (Madrid : Ediciones Atlas, 1946-47), vol. 22, p. 156. CHAPTER 2: RECONQUESTHISPANIA 1. Spanish and Portuguese interpretations,especially the latter, are summarized in Jaime Cortesao, "The Portuguese Imprint on Brazil,"in Harold B.Johnson, ed., From Reconquest 481 482 N O T E S TO PP. 14-29 to Empire: The Iberian Background to Latin American History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Borzoi Books, 1970), pp. 209-224. For further observations on cultural and ethnic factors in the shaping of Portuguese identity see H. V. Livermore, A New History of Portugal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966), pp. 9-32; and Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal, 2 vols. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), I, chap. 1. For the importance of maritime influences see Bailey W.Diffie, Prelude to Empire : Portugal Overseas Before Henry the Navigator (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books 108, 1960), pp. 20-28, 67. 2. The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical Political Geography (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1959), especially pp. 204-217. 3. Ibid., p. 213. 4. French historians of the "Annales" school have been instrumental in working out long-term demographic and economic trends. For insights into their contributions see Peter Burke, "Introduction," and Fernand Braudel, "History and the Social Sciences," in Economy and Society in Early Modern Europe: Essays from Annales, ed. Peter Burke (New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1972), pp. 1-10 and 11-42. See particularly Franfois Simiand, Les fluctuations economiques a longue periode et la crise mondiale (Paris: F. Alcan, 1932). Simiand's general thesis is that long-term upswings (APhases ) are associated with economic and demographic expansion, and downswings (BPhases ) with economic and demographic contraction. It is not certain which factor, demographic or economic, is the chicken and which the egg. Climatic and epidemiological variables, moreover, enter the picture. For a critique of their influence see Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System, Vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974), pp. 33-38. 5. Jaime Vicens Vives, with the collaboration of Jorge Nadal Oiler, Manual de historia economica de Espana (4th ed.; Barcelona: Editorial Vicens Vives, 1965), trans. Frances M. Lopez-Morillas as^lw Economic History of Spain (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969), pp. 250-251. 6. Julian J. Bishko, "The PeninsularBackground of Latin American Cattle Ranching," HAHR, 32:491-515 (1952). 7. L'Espagne de Charles Quint, 2 vols. (Paris: Societe d'Edition d'Enseignement Superieur , 1973), I, chap. 2. 8. The text along with critical annotations may be found in Los codigos espanoles concordadosy anotados, 12 vols. (Madrid, 1872-73), II-IV. 9. The French historian Roland Mousnier has made the fullest study of...


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