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NOTES Introduction 1. On the structure of Nazi Jewish policy (definition, expropriation, concentration, annihilation), see Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 2003), 1:49–59. 2. Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1943 (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 2004), 318. 3. The mental hospitals chosen as killing sites were Bernburg, Hadamar, Brandenburg , Grafeneck, Sonnenstein, and Hartheim. Hitler’s Chancellery administered the program through offices located at Tiergartenstrasse No. 4 in Berlin—hence the code name of the program, “Operation T-4.” 4. Browning, Origins, 189; Hilberg, Destruction, 960; David M. Crowe, The Holocaust : Roots, History, and Aftermath (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2008), 233–34. 5. As Browning notes, Himmler had “loaned” SS men to Hitler’s Chancellery for execution of the “euthanasia” program between 1939 and 1941. In the fall of 1941, Himmler “was going to collect his debts by taking back his SS personnel experienced in gassing and borrowing some of Viktor Brack’s men was [sic] well.” (Brack was the deputy of Hitler’s chancellery and the chief of its Section II, which had primary responsibility for carrying out the “euthanasia” program in Germany.) As we will see, the German staffs of the Operation Reinhard camps would ultimately consist of hardcore SS men such as Kurt Franz and T-4 employees with only nominal ties to the SS. Browning, Origins, 416. 6. Ibid., 417–19; Crowe, The Holocaust, 241. 7. Arad cites a figure of 1.7 million Jews murdered in Operation Reinhard. Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps (Bloomington : Indiana Univ. Press, 1987), 379. 8. Brack’s testimony at Nuremberg is contained in the files of the investigation and prosecution of Belzec personnel, housed in the federal archive at Ludwigsburg , Germany, BA 162/3168 (Eidesstattliche Erklärung Viktor Hermann Brack, Oct. 12, 1946). Ascertaining the precise identities of all T-4 personnel Brack assigned to Globocnik in the fall of 1941 has proven elusive; the names of Eberl, Kallmeyer, and Linden were identified by the Sachbearbeiter for the Belzec case, Dietrich Zeug, in June 1960, BA 162/3168 (“Operation Reinhard.” Concise Summary of Current Results of Investigations by the Central Office of the State Notes to Pages 4–6 250 Justice Administrations, 9 June 1960). See also Interrogation of Josef Oberhauser, Dec. 12, 1960; Browning, Origins, 419. 9. Letter of Viktor Brack to Himmler, June 6, 1942, Bundesarchiv, Ludwigsburg (hereafter abbreviated as BArch), B 162/3168. The figure of 92 T-4 personnel is cited in the literature. See, for example, Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, 17. Arad adduces a figure of 450 people assigned to Operation Reinhard: 153 SS and police under Globocnik’s command in Lublin, 205 SS and police members, and 92 T-4 personnel. 10. Browning, Origins, 419–20; Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, 24. 11. Quoted in Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, 24. 12. Arad cites the figure of 414,000 for Polish Jewish victims at Belzec alone. He reaches the 600,000 figure by adding the tens of thousands of Jews from other European countries deported to Lublin ghettos and later murdered in the Belzec camp. Arad’s figure is primarily based on the report prepared by the Polish Committee to Investigate Nazi crimes in Occupied Poland and matches the estimate of the regional court of Munich at Josef Oberhauser’s trial in 1964. It is the most commonly accepted estimate of Jewish fatalities at Belzec. Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, 127. 13. Ibid., 26ff.; Browning, Origins, 420; Indictment of Josef Oberhauser et al., 22 Js 68/61, BA, B 162/3173, 4–5. 14. The figure of 75,000 is from the state court of Hagen’s 1966 verdict in the main Sobibor trial, reproduced in C. F. Rüter and Dick de Mildt, Justiz und NSVerbrechen : Sammlung Deutscher Strafurteile Wegen Nationalsozialistischer Tötungsverbrechen 1945–1999 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam Univ. Press, 2001), 25:84. In Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Arad cites a higher figure of 90,000 to 100,000 gassed between May and July 1942 alone (p. 80). 15. Rüter and de Mildt, Justiz, 25:88. 16. There are wide disparities in the figures cited in the literature. Hilberg mentions a figure of over 150,000; Crowe places the number of Jews killed at Sobibor at 250,000. Hilberg, Destruction, 3:958; Crowe, The Holocaust, 244. Like Crowe, Arad adheres to a figure of 250,000 based on a transport...


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