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notes Abbreviations AGI Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla, Spain AGN Archivo General de la Nacion, Mexico City, Mexico ASM Special Collections, Arizona State Museum, Tucson, Arizona BL Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley CSAS California State Archives, Sacramento, California CSL California State Library, Sacramento, California DRSW Documentary Relations of the Southwest HL Huntington Library, San Marino, California LACNHM Special Collections, Los Angeles County Natural History Museum, Los Angeles, California PI Provincias Internas SANM Spanish Archives of New Mexico, New Mexico State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico TANM Territorial Archives of New Mexico, New Mexico State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico UAZ Special Collections, University of Arizona, Tucson UCR Special Collections, University of California, Riverside WCL William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, Los Angeles Notes on Naming People, Geography, and Time Periods 1. Daniel Lord Smail and Andrew Shryock advise historians to drop the “pre” altogether, arguing that such a designation privileges modern history over other periods. See “History and the ‘Pre.’” Introduction 1. See figure 1. 2. Many scholars have explored the varying degrees and forms of Indigenous captivity. Juliana Barr has perhaps most aptly captured this phenomenon with the phrase “spectrum of bondage” to identify Indigenous captor strategies across Native North America between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. This study adopts similar concepts for this region. See discussion below. Barr, “A Spectrum of Bondage in Spanish Texas,” in Gallay, Indian Slavery in Colonial America, 277–318. Also see Barr’s “From Captives to Slaves,” 19–46. 3. Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez provides a nuanced analysis of Spanish euphemisms for different forms of bondage in the Rio Grande borderlands. See River of Hope, 27–33. 4. James Brooks has pioneered recent explorations into the overlapping nature of Indigenous and European forms of bondage in the borderlands in Captives and Cousins. [160] notes to pages 2–4 5. Tumacacori National Historic Park, Mission 2000 Spanish Missions Database, personal ID no. 24016. Borderlands bondage in northern Sonora served as just one of several strategies employed by Native captors to negotiate ethnic and colonial identities. Akimel O’odham alcades (village leaders), in particular, utilized petitions and other bureaucratic channels to protect territory, differentiate their villages from other Native settlements, and maintain autonomy . See Radding, “The Many Faces of Colonialism in Two Iberoamerican Borderlands” in Fisher and O’Hara, Imperial Subjects, esp. 101–9. 6. Tumacacori National Historic Park, Mission 2000 Spanish Missions Database, event ID no. 8668. 7. The term nijora most likely derived from the Maricopas. Although its exact origin is somewhat unclear (Leslie Spiers’s Maricopa informants claimed it translated literally as “for the old people”), Maricopas had already applied the term to captives when Spaniards arrived in the region. Nijoras appear in over 400 instances in the Sonoran mission records. See appendix 1, table A5. Also see Tumacacori National Historic Park, Mission 2000 Spanish Missions Database, search term “NIJORA”; and Dobyns et al., “What Were the Nixoras?” 8. Antonio’s role as a rescatîn approached a half-century (1773–1823) at Caborca. There is documentation for at least ten instances of his guardianship during this time (almost all of them Quechans from the Colorado River), although one can speculate that such a long tenure as rescatîn resulted in many others’ purchases. See Tumacacori National Historic Park, Mission 2000 Spanish Missions Database, personal ID no. 23855. At least 400 nijoras appear in the mission records between 1700 and 1830. Similar baptismal phenomena occurred in New Mexico and the Great Plains, as explored by James Brooks in Captives and Cousins. Also see Valerio-Jiménez, River of Hope, 32–35; and Bruge, Navajos in the Catholic Church Records. 9. Steve Hackel’s pioneering Children of Coyote has employed the phrase “dual revolutions ” to document the biological and economic consequences of the Indian-Franciscan encounter in colonial California. 10. Similar issues plagued other borderlands regions of Mexico. See DeLay, War of a Thousand Deserts; and Valerio-Jiménez, River of Hope. 11. George Harwood Phillips’s Vineyards and Vaqueros provides the most recent look at the tension between Californios and Franciscans and the fight over Indian labor. Also see Leonard Pitt’s foundational work on the Californios, The Decline of the Californios. For the actions of Echaeandía, see Mora-Torres, Californio Voices, 115–17. 12. For the prominence of Indian roads such as the “Yuma route” during the transitional period of Mexican independence, see chapters 2–3. Also see Bean and...


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