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FOREWORD For more than a third of a century at the University of Minnesota, Wesley W. Spink—clinician, internist concerned with the broad realm of infectious disease in man, and experimental pathologist—has been directing his major energies to research on brucellosis. Driven certainly by the Oslerian concept "Know one disease completely and you know all of medicine," Dr. Spink has contributed to the methods of diagnosis, the analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, and the means of treatment and prevention of brucellosis. To achieve these goals, in different stages of inquiry he has had to be an anatomist, physiologist, pathologist, experimental pathologist , microbiologist, epidemiologist, immunobiologist, diagnostician, compassionate therapist, and practical developer of vaccines—and sometimes all of them at once. His inquiry has led to questions such as these: What is unique and what is common as this disease is expressed in cattle, goats, sheep, horses, dogs, or humans? What are the manifestations and mechanisms of disease in each species? 9 Frontiers in Comparative Medicine Why and when do granulomas form in the organs of domestic and experimental animals and in man? How do hypersensitivity and immunity relate to expressions of disease in acute and chronic illness? Exploring the many questions derived from his constant efforts to compare human and animal disease has led Dr. Spink to numerous fundamental insights. Some of his many contributions are related to the basis for continuing bacterial infection, the role of endotoxins in symptom and lesion formation , the pathologic physiology of shock, the special significance of IgG antibody levels in diagnosis of ongoing infection , and the role delayed allergy plays in the development of granulomas, rashes, and febrile responses. No discipline has been too difficult for Dr. Spink to master. No species has been too mundane to study if comparison promised information new and useful to the understanding of brucellosis. Thus, it is entirely fitting that the Wesley W. Spink Lectures should be planned to focus on comparative medicine. Biennially the Spink Lectures will bring to Minnesota one of the world's leading scholars to deliver a series of lectures on this subject that by its very nature transcends artificial boundaries between disciplines which sometimes act as impediments to progress. The Spink Lectures cut across artificial boundaries of another kind. Four of the state's educational centers—all important contributors to the cultural, scientific, and technological wealth of our region—have for the first time joined forces formally to present the series. One lecture in the first series was given on the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota, one at Carleton College (Dr. Spink's alma mater and a leading liberal arts college), one on the Duluth campus of the university, and one at the Medical School of the university 's Minneapolis campus. 10 Foreword We are indeed pleased that W. I. B. Beveridge was able to come to Minnesota to present the initial Spink Lectures, which form the basis for this book. In the following chapters, Professor Beveridge provides a glimpse of both the extraordinary breadth and the unfathomable depths of comparative medicine. In the first chapter, we are treated to a historical analysis of comparative medicine and to Professor Beveridge 's view of the usefulness in historic perspective of analogy as a method of research in medicine and biology. While accepting certain limitations of analogy in logical and scientific pursuits, Professor Beveridge points to the importance of models of human disease especially as these occur naturally in the study of animal disease. He has been able to trace to the influence of comparative medicine many key steps in the development of the concepts of contagion, etiological agents, vectors of disease, wind transmission of virus infection, and vaccination involving both live virus vaccines and killed organism vaccines. His considerations carry us even to very recent progress in immunizationsagainst parasites and to modern concepts of immunobiology such as those underlying transplant surgery. Professor Beveridge attributes much of this progress to the understanding of biologic phenomena initially observed and analyzed in animals. He points out that this has been apparent not only in the field of infectious disease but also in work with cancer, where comparative studies have clearly pointed to the association of cancer with virus and to the close relation between endocrine function and the expression of many cancers . Similarly, in cardiovascular and neurological medicine and even in the perplexing area of congenital malformation, Professor Beveridge points out that much has been learned and much more will be learned from comparative...


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