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Preface 1. Erik Barnouw, A Tower in Babel, 96. 2. U.S. Congress, Senate, W. G. Cowles letter to Hon. Hiram Bingam, discussion of the Proposed Federal Radio Act, 67th Congr., 1st sess., Congressional Record (1 July 1926): 12500. 3. Martin Aylesworth, “National Broadcasting,” 27. 4. EXTRA!: The Magazine of FAIR 7, no. 5 (January–February 1994): 5. 5. John Dewey, Freedom and Culture, 185. 6. “Prospectus for Pacifica Foundation, 1946,” in The Pacifica Radio Sampler, ed. Vera Hopkins. This nearly seven-hundred-page collection of chronologies, articles, internal memorandums, letters, and some of Hopkins’s original notes is unpaginated. When I refer to a specific article that has page numbers, they will be given. Hereafter many of the references to this compendium will simply be cited as Pacifica Radio Sampler. Introduction 1. S. E. Frost Jr., ed., Education’s Own Stations. 2. Robert W. McChesney, Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy. 3. Walt Whitman, “The Real War Will Never Get in the Books,” 779. 4. “Articles of Incorporation,” Pacifica Foundation, 19 August 1946, in Pacifica Radio Sampler. 5. Ibid. Notes 149 6. Steven Schiffrin, The First Amendment, Democracy, and Romance, 87. 7. Alexander Meiklejohn, Political Freedom, 86–87. 8. Saying this in no way indicates that current participants in Pacifica’s experiment are any less skilled, committed, or courageous than earlier broadcasters. 9. Oliver W. Holmes, Abrams v. U.S. (250 U.S. 616, 624, 1919), quoted in Lerner, The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, 312. 10. Dewey, Education and Democracy, 86–87. 11. Frost, Is American Radio Democratic, v. 12. George Kateb, The Inner Ocean, 44. 13. Walt Whitman, The Works of Walt Whitman, 221. 1. The Rise of Corporate Broadcasting 1. Erik Barnouw, A Tower in Babel, 55. 2. Susan Douglas, Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899–1922. 3. Quoted in Werner Severin, “Commercial vs. Non-commercial Radio during Broadcasting’s Early Years,” 494 (emphasis added). 4. James G. Harbord, “Radio and Democracy,” 215. 5. David Sarnoff, Looking Ahead, 48. 6. William Peck Banning, Commercial Broadcasting Pioneer. 7. Barnouw, Tower in Babel, 108. 8. Banning, Commercial Broadcasting Pioneer. 9. Merlin Aylesworth, “National Broadcasting,” 27. 10. Frost, Education’s Own Stations. 11. House Hearings discussing the Proposed Federal Radio Act (emphasis added). 12. John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, 126. 13. Listed in A Thirty-Year History of Programs Carried on National Radio Networks in the United States, 1926–1956, ed. Harrison B. Summers. 14. McChesney, Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy, chapter 2. 15. E. Pendleton Herring, “Politics and Radio Regulation,” 173. 16. Ibid., 174. 17. Jimmy Morris, The Remembered Years. 18. “National Committee on Education by Radio,” 3. 19. Llewellyn White, The American Radio, 108. 20. National Association of Broadcasters, Broadcasting in the United States. 21. Quoted in McChesney, Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy, 208. 22. NACRE, Four Years of Network Broadcasting. 23. Ibid., 58, 72. 24. Summers, A Thirty-Year History. 25. James Rorty, Our Master’s Voice, 270. 150 NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 2. Lew Hill’s Passion and the Origins of Pacifica 1. Emile Arnaud, quoted in Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and a World without War, 60. 2. Karl Marx, Capital, 926. 3. Karl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political. 4. Chickering, Imperial Germany, 34. 5. William James, “The Moral Equivalent of War,” 1285. 6. Ibid., 1288 (emphasis added). 7. Ibid., 1287. 8. Keegan, History of Warfare, 355. 9. Zechariah Chaffee, Free Speech in the United States, 3. 10. Samuel Walker, In Defense of Civil Liberties. 11. Peter Brock, Twentieth-Century Pacifism, 41. 12. Charles Chatfield, For Peace and Justice, 106–7. 13. Roy Finch, in “Nonviolence in a Violent World,” KPFA, Pacifica Foundation, 1965. 14. Quoted by David Dellinger in the foreword to Against the Tide. 15. Lawrence Wittner, Rebels against War, 3. 16. Cynthia Eller, Conscientious Objectors and the Second World War (emphasis added). 17. Niebuhr, quoted in Eller, Conscientious Objectors. 18. Eller, Conscientious Objectors, 50–51. 19. Roy Kepler in Dellinger, Against the Tide, 24 December 1984. 20. Jim Tracy, “Forging Dissent in an Age of Consensus.” 21. Ibid., 95. 22. Ibid., 95–96. 23. Ibid., 98. 24. Ibid., 176. 25. Ibid. 26. “NSC-68: A Report to the National Security Council,” 385. 27. Tracy, “Forging Dissent,” 177. 28. Ibid., 180. 29. Appendix to “Report to the Executive and Advisory Members of Pacifica Foundation .” 30. Kenneth Rexroth, An Autobiographical Novel, 519. 3. Listener-Sponsored Radicalism on KPFA 1. Edwin Nockels in Robert McChesney, Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy, 76. NOTES TO CHAPTER...


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