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708 ] A review of Outlines of Jainism, by Jagmanderlal Jaini, ed. with preliminary note by F. W. Thomas Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1916. Pp. xl + 156.1 The Monist, 28 (Apr 1918) 320 A compact little treatise by a distinguished Jain. The author divides his exposition into Theology, Metaphysics, Ethics, and Ritual, and appends a number of Jain texts. The book is a compendium, not an interpretation into terms of Western philosophy–which is to its credit. It will appeal chiefly to the student of Sanskrit and Pali who has some acquaintance with Indian and Buddhist philosophy, and perhaps is ignorant in this less explored field; but it should interest others as well.2 We regret that the author did not find space for a comparative account; we learn nothing of borrowings, analogies, or common sources. There is an historical narrative of the teachings of Jainism, but none of the development of its philosophy. Jainism is dualistic, and one would like to know what relation it bears to the dualism of early Sankhya. From Mr. Jaini’s statement of the three cardinal principles (karma, relativism, and ahimsa or non-injury of living beings), we do not discern any fundamental difference from some forms of Buddhism. One is glad to see that honor is paid to the labors of that greatest of Orientalists, Jacobi.3 The book is published under the auspices of the Jain Literature Society. We hope that it will spread the interest in a noble religion and ethics and an important philosophy.4 η Notes 1. Jainism: an ascetic religion founded in sixth-century India that teaches the immortality of the soul but denies the existence of a supreme being. Jagmanderlal Jaini (d. 1927), barrister and former editor of the Jaina Gazette, was president of the All India Jaina Association. The British Indologist F. W. Thomas (1867-1956) was president of the Jain Literature Society, founded in London in 1910. 2. TSE had studied Sanskrit and Pali at Harvard in 1911-12 under Charles Rockwell Lanman, the Wales Professor of Sanskrit. His copy of Lanman’s A Sanskrit Reader: With Vocabulary and Notes (1906), signed“T.S.Eliot/Cambridge/1912,”retainshismarkingsandannotations throughout. [ 709 Review: Outlines of Jainism 3. The German Indologist Hermann Jacobi (1850-1937), professsor at the University of Cologne, edited and translated Jain manuscripts into English and German and was well known for his work on the origins of Vedic culture. 4. “Jaina ethics is the most glorious part of Jainism,” writes Jaini. “There is no conflict between man’s duty to himself and to society. The highest good of society is the highest good of the individual. . . . The first stage of a Jaina layman’s life is that of intelligent and well reasoned faith in Jainism; and the second is when he takes a vow not to destroy any kind of life, not to lie, not to use another’s property without his consent, to be chaste, to limit his necessaries, to worship daily, and to give charity in the way of knowledge, medicine, comfort, and food. And these virtues are summed up in one word: ahimsā (non-hurting)” (xxiii). ...


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