Index
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Index References in italics refer to figures. abundance: body size and, 392–93; distribution and, 469–70, 471; log abundance plots (normal distributions), 259, 267; macroecology and frequency of trait distribution, 388; niche theory and, 267; as proxy for ecosystem function, 592; rank-abundance curves, 258; relative, 258–59, 469–70; species abundance distribution, 264, 266–67, 466; species co-occurrence and, 268–69; ‘‘veil line’’ and sampling of, 266–67 acidification: acid rain, 343, 354; hysteresis and, 404; of marine ecosystems, 411, 482, 499, 512, 548, 552–53, 555, 619; nitrogen cycling and, 353–54 activation energy, 393 adaptation: adaptive syndromes, 464, 466, 467, 468, 470, 472; antibodies as adaptive response, 18; balanced polymorphism, 93; character adaptation, 93; character adjustment , 270; developmental constraints and, 93; to dispersal, 43–44; environmental change and, 108; vs. exaptation, 94; geographic variation and, 98–99; gradualism and, 93, 94, 99; macroevolutionary, 95, 97; microevolutionary, 95; modularity and, 93, 94; molecular population genetics and, 97–99; natural selection and, 2, 102; polymorphism and, 99; as process, 93; selfish genetic elements, 93, 94, 99–100; to stressful habitats, 25. See also adaptive radiation; phenotypic plasticity Adaptation and Natural Selection (Williams), 62 adaptive management, 522, 619, 623, 680–81; PVAs and, 526–27, 680, plate 16 adaptive plasticity. See phenotypic plasticity adaptive radiation, 2, 123, 129, 143–44, plates 3 and 4; behavioral plasticity and, 150; climate change and, 148; coevolution, 144–45; colonization and, 144, 148–50; competition and, 143; current examples of, 146–48; dispersal and, 148–50; divergence and, 123, 144, 150–51, 152; ecological release and, 150; environmental or landscape changes and, 143, 144; experimental manipulation and, 143, 148, 152; extrinsic factors and, 143; founder events and, 150; gene flow and, 151; habitat availability and, 144; hybridization and, 151; initiation of, 148–50; key innovations and, 17–18, 143, 144–45; likelihood of, 146; linked to emergence of new, isolated habitats, 145–46; molecular basis for, 152; molecular research and, 143; phenotypic plasticity and, 150; predation and, 151; sexual selection and, 151; speciation and, 143 adaptive syndromes, 464, 466, 467, 468, 470, 472 aesthetic services, 574, 575, 576, 611, 647, 652, 661, 662, 667, 671, 675; conservation efforts targeting, 675 agriculture and agroecosystems, 597; agricultural landscapes, 436; artificial fertilizers and nutrient imbalance, 296, 336–37, 399, 411–12, 553–54, 582, 599–601, 603, 620, 631, 713, 716, 724, 728; biodiversity and, 602–3, 727; biological controls and, 598–99, 683–88; climate regulation and, 475–77, 601–2, 727, 728; croplands (arable land), 724, 725; crop types, 725–26; cultural services provided by, 598; deforestation linked to, 58, 452, 722, 727; disease regulation and, 602; ecological management strategies and, 599, 601, 603–4, 661, 665; ecosystem services in, 573, 597–604; extensification, 724; fertilizers and nutrient enrichment, 296, 336–37, 352, 353, 399, 411, 553, 555, 582, 599–603, 726–28, 729; fire frequency changes linked to, 454; forest plantations (agroforestry), 567, 597, 603, 608, 729; habitat fragmentation and, 423, 563–64, 727; herbicide tolerant crops, 665; human appropriation of net primary productivity (HANPP) and, 727; hydrologic cycle and, 600–601; infectious diseases and, 722, 729; intensification, 724, 726–27; irrigation, 476, 480, 601, 704, 726–27, 728; land area devoted to, 597, 725; land use and landscape changes linked to, 475–77, 724, 729–30, plate 23; nutrient cycling, 599–600, 727; pasture lands and grazing, 725, plates 9, 23; pest control in, 211, 598–99; pollination and, 599; as polycultures, 597, 598; provisioning services provided by, 597; regulating services affected by, 597–98, 600–602; supporting services provided by, 598–600; support of biodiversity by, 598; technology and productivity of, 660, 665, 727–28 air quality, 653, 664–65 airsheds, 347 albedo, 614; climate and planetary, 553, 609, 615, 665 alien species. See invasive species Allee distribution model, 39 Allee effect, 59, 60, 514, 517 Allen’s rule, 91, 131 allometry, 34–35, 392, 515 allopatry, 88, 135, 141, 494 alternative stable states, 395, 548–49, 555, 568; alternative dynamic regimes and complexity of real world systems, 398–99; catastrophic shifts and, 395–401, 402; competition as mechanism for, 400–401; cusp bifurcation and, 398, 399; experimental evidence for, 403–5; facilitation as mechanism for, 400; fold bifurcations and, 396–97; hysteresis and, 397–98; management applications of, 405–6; overexploitation as mechanism for, 401; path dependency and, 403–4, 405; resilience and, 398, 405–6; restoration ecology and, 568, 569; in shallow lakes...


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