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Appendix A Japanese Cabinets and Cabinet Ministers Database The Japanese Cabinets and Cabinet Ministers (JCCM) Database contains a wide range of data pertaining to the 141 cabinets formations, 1,350 individuals appointed to ministerial posts, and 3,612 portfolios allocated between July 1871 and May 2013. In delineating cabinet formations and dissolutions , I followed the system employed by the Government of Japan, which provides a complete listing of cabinets, portfolios allocated, and the names and the dates of appointment and dismissal of all ministers from December 22, 1885, to the present ( .html). My JCCM Database deviates from that system in that it begins with the de facto cabinets that emerged within the Grand Council (Dajōkan) beginning in July 1871. By tracing ministers’ changing parliamentary and social frame attributes , the JCCM Database illuminates the “cohesiveness” aspect of cabinet institutionalization (explained in chapter 1). The “parliamentary” data distinguish MPs from non-MPs, and in the case of the former specify the Diet chamber in which the minister held a seat, number of elective terms, length of parliamentary service (since first election to the Diet), age (at time of appointment, first election to the Diet, and initial ministerial posting), partisan and factional affiliation, factors related to the electoral district (for example, urban or rural character, etc.), and prior ministerial service. The “social frame” attributes include ministers’ gender, family background (in other words, whether or not she or he is a “hereditary politician ”), geographic origin (by region and prefecture), educational attainment (for example, university attended, type of university, whether or not it was among the eight elite institutions, etc.), and occupational background (subdivided into upper-level or junior grade ex-government bureaucrat, 226   Appendix A local politician, legislative staffer, attorney, journalist, labor union leader, local government official, and entertainer/celebrity). The JCCM Database was forged of data mined from various sources. I dug especially deeply into Seikan yōran (various years), Miyagawa, ed. (1990), Shiratori (1979), and “Naikaku seido to rekidai naikaku” (http://; last accessed May 26, 2013). In addition, I found valuable data in Kensei shiryō hensankai (1978), Naikaku seido hyakunenshi henshū iinkai (1980), Jinjikōshinroku (various years), Kodama et al. (1983), Satō and Matsuzaki (1986), Naka (1980), Nihonkoku kokkai zengiin meikan hensan iinkai (1986), Naikaku seido hyakujūchōnen kinenshi henshū iinkai (1995), Naikaku seido hyakunenshi henshū iinkai (1980), Naikaku shisei chōsakai (1980), and the National Diet Library’s “Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures” website (; last accessed May 26, 2013). In addition, Steven R. Reed’s “Japan MMD Data Set” (http://; last accessed May 26, 2013) provides data for candidates in every Diet election held from 1947 to 1993. Constructing the JCCM Database was made immeasurably easier thanks to the efforts of these researchers, who sifted through mountains of raw data to extract valuable ore. ...


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