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Notes Introduction 1. When using the term “New Testament” here and throughout the book, I do not imply that the specific traditions discussed are characteristic of “the” New Testament as a whole; rather, I am aware that the New Testament is a quite diverse collection of writings and I will be more specific when necessary and where applicable. 2. Although, within the Talmud, there are obvious clusters in the tractate that deals with capital punishment, the tractate Sanhedrin. 3. The history of the Toledot Yeshu and its relationship with the talmudic literature needs to be reevaluated; see the book by Krauss mentioned below. Princeton University’s library has acquired a collection of some of the relevant manuscript, and we are preparing a new edition with English translation and commentary. 4. A very good summary of the state of the art is provided by Annette Yoshiko Reed and Adam H. Becker in their introduction to the Princeton conference volume edited by them: The Ways that Never Parted: Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 2003, pp. 1–33. 5. See the survey in Johann Maier, Jesus von Nazareth in der talmudischen Überlieferung, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978, pp. 18–41. 6. The University of Altdorf (a German city not far from Nuremberg) was founded in 1623 and became one of the most famous European universities in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was closed in 1809; the Wagenseil collection of Hebrew writings is now located at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (founded 1743). 7. A similar work, written in German, is Johann Schmid’s Feuriger DrachenGifft und wütiger Ottern-Gall, Augsburg, 1683. 8. Submitted in two parts: Jesus in Talmude, Sive Dissertatio Philologica Prior/Posterior, De iis locis, in quibus per Talmudicas Pandectas Jesu cujusdam men- tio injicitur, Altdorf, 1699. The second part even carries the Hebrew abbreviation v”gc (be-ev Falk, “Qetaani).” 7. The explicit reference to Jesus in Mss. Munich 95, Paris Suppl. Heb. 1337, and JTS Rab. 15. 8. Or “Sikhnaya.” 9. t Hul: “He told me a word of heresy (minut) in the name of Jesus ben Pantiri /Pandera” (the following exegesis of Deut. 23:19 and Mic. 1:7 is missing in 158 Notes to Chapter 4 t Hul); QohR: “He told me something (lit. a certain word) in the name of Soand -So” (however, some manuscripts and printed editions of QohR read “in the name of Jesus ben Pandera”: see Maier, Jesus von Nazareth, p. 296, n. 305, and the chart below, pp. 137f.). 10. Mss. Munich 95 and Paris Suppl. Heb. 1337; Ms. JTS Rab. 15: “thus taught him Jesus his Master.” 11. Reading qubbtzsah instead of qibbatzsah. 12. The money, in the Hebrew plural. 13. QohR has only “heresy.” 14. QohR: “prostitution” (zenut). 15. On Eliezer b. Hyrkanos, see Jacob Neusner, Eliezer Ben Hyrkanus: The Tradition and the Man, 2 vols., Leiden: Brill, 1973. For Neusner’s analysis of our story see vol. 1, pp. 400–403, and vol. 2, pp. 366f.; Neusner is certain that Eliezer “cannot have been a min,” although “it seems difficult to say whether the account before us reports something which actually happened” (vol. 2, p. 367). 16. In all the three versions; only t Hullin leaves out “idle.” 17. This is Neusner’s translation in The Tosefta Translated from the Hebrew, Fifth Division: Qodoshim (The Order of Holy Things), New York: Ktav, 1979, p. 74, and, almost identical, in Eliezer Ben Hyrkanus, vol. 1, p. 400; see also Saul Lieberman, “Roman Legal Institutions in Early Rabbinics and in the Acta Martyrorum ,” JQR, n.s., 35, 1944/45, pp. 20f. 18. The version in QohR does not help, either, because it reads: “Is it possible that these rabbinic schools (yeshivot hallalu) should err in such matters?” (Lieberman, p. 20, n. 129, finds in QohR the corrupt word šyšyšbwt, which he emends to she-śevot, but the emendation she-yeshivot, as in fact the printed edition reads, is much more plausible). It is, of course, possible that R. Eliezer’s colleagues bribed the governor and that he uses R. Eliezer’s grey hair = old age and sign of wisdom as an “excuse” for his acquittal, but such an explanation is not very convincing. Richard Kalmin (in a written remark on my manuscript) and one of the anonymous readers draw my attention to the fact that the missing...


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