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157 Notes to Chapter 1 1. Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not, 2d ed. (Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1860; reprint, New York: Dover Publications , 1969. London: Harrison and Sons, 1860), 8 (page references are to reprint edition ). 2. Wendell W. Oderkirk, “‘Organize or Perish’: The Transformation of Nebraska Nursing Education, 1888–1941” (Ph.D. diss., University of Nebraska, 1988), 7. Also see David G. Allen, “Professionalism, Occupational Segregation by Gender and Control of Nursing,” Women and Politics 6 (fall 1986): 1–25; and Janet Wilson James,“Writing and Rewriting Nursing History: A Review Essay,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 58 (1984): 568. 3. Shiphrah A. Alicia William-Evans and M. Elizabeth Carnegie,“The Evolution of Professional Nursing,” in Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, and Management, ed. Barbara Cherry and Susan R. Jacob (St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby, 2002), 23. For similar examples see Janice Rider Ellis and Celia Love Hartley, Nursing in Today’s World: Challenges, Issues, and Trends (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2001), chap. 5; and Nellie Nelson, “Image of Nursing: Influences of the Present,” in Nursing Today: Transition and Trends, ed. JoAnn Zerwekh and Jo Carol Claborn (Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000), chap. 3. 4. For a discussion of the pervasive assumption that professions grow through a series of stages called professionalization, see Andrew Abbott, The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988). For an example of how stages of professionalization are applied to nursing, see Nancy Tomes, “‘Little World of Our Own’: The Pennsylvania Hospital Training School for Nurses, 1895–1907,” in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings, ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 467–81; Mary Carol Ramos, “The Johns Hopkins Training School for Nurses: A Tale of Vision, Labor, and Futility,” Nursing History Review 5 (1997): 23–48; or Patricia M. Schwirian, Professionalization of Nursing: Current Issues and Trends (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1998), chap. 1. 5. M. Louise Fitzpatrick,“A Historical Study of Nursing Organization: Doing Historical Research,” in Nursing Research: A Qualitative Perspective, ed. P. L. Munhall and Carolyn J. Oiler (Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1986), 195–96, 223–24. 6. Jane E. Mottus, New York Nightingales: The Emergence of the Nursing Profession at Bellevue and New York Hospital, 1850–1920 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1981), 175. 7 Nancy Tomes, “The Silent Battle: Nurse Registration in New York State, 1903–1920,” in Nursing History: New Perspectives, New Possibilities, ed. Ellen Condliffe Notes Olson_Notes_3rd.qxd 1/13/2004 2:26 PM Page 157 Lagemann (NewYork: Teachers College Press, 1983), 124–25.A variation on studies such as this one, as well as the examples in the two preceding notes, are histories that are written primarily for celebratory purposes rather than analysis. Numerous training schools, particularly those that evolved into university-based programs, have histories that fit this description. See for example Poldi Tschirch, ed., A Century of Excellence, A Vision for the Future: The University of Texas School of Nursing at Galveston, 1890–1990 (Galveston: University of Texas Medical Branch, 1990); Margaret Heyse Cory, Nurse: A Changing Word in a Changing World: The History of the University of North Dakota College of Nursing , 1909–1982 (Grand Forks, N.Dak.: University Press, 1982); and James Gray, Education for Nursing : A History of the University of Minnesota School (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1960). This genre seems to have had minimal impact on the overall interpretation of nursing history and, as a consequence, is not a focus of this account. 8. Diane Hamilton,“Constructing the Mind of Nursing,” Nursing History Review 2 (1994): 3–28. 9. The term occupation is used in a generic sense to refer to all fields of employment , regardless of other distinctions involved, such as professional, nonprofessional, or trade. A survey of the literature indicates that this is the most neutral term to describe the widest range of employment fields. An exception to this view is presented in Joan E. Lynaugh and Claire M. Fagin, “Nursing Comes of Age,” Image 20 (winter 1988): 184–90. Lynaugh and Fagin argue that nursing is a profession rather than an occupation. 10. Margarete Sandelowski, Devices and Desires: Gender, Technology, and American Nursing (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 178–80. 11. Sioban Nelson, Say Little, Do Much: Nurses, Nuns, and Hospitals in the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 152, 156, 160, 164. See also Sioban Nelson, “Entering the Professional...


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