Glossary
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195 arap—usually translated as “blackamoor”; used in the Russian Empire to denote a person with black skin avtentyka—meaning “authenticity”; a category defined by ethnomusicologists as pre-Soviet, village-based music genres and performance practices recorded in villages or recreated by folk performers bandura—a Ukrainian plucked string folk instrument with twenty to sixty-eight strings bili liudy—white people; a Western-mediated identity used in contexts that involve demands for dignity, fairness, and respect blokowisko—a Polish term for an urban neighborhood with high-rise apartments boda-boda—motorcycle taxi in East Africa, from the English “border-border”; originally used to transport people across the no-man’s land at the KenyaUganda border bongo flava—Tanzania’s R&B– and hip hop–influenced genre; from the Swahili words bongo, “brains,” a slang term for the street smarts needed to live in Dar es Salaam, and fleva, “flavor” brekhunets—literally “the liar”; local name for the radio speaker systems built into Soviet-era apartment housing chernyi (Russian) / chornyi (Ukrainian)—black, referring to the color but also a subjective delineator of status as defined by ethnicity in the USSR chorna robota—backbreaking physical labor for which workers receive a relatively meager salary czarna muza—literally “black muse”; name for hip hop in Poland duma (s.), dumy (pl.)—literally “thought” or “reflection”; epics sung by wandering minstrels in Ukraine (see kobzar) Emsky Ukaz (Ems Decree)—a decree issued in 1876 in the Russian Empire forbidding the staging of Ukrainian plays and readings and the printing of religious, scholarly, and educational literature in Ukrainian GLOSSARY 196 Glossary estrada—literally “small stage”; catch-all term for Soviet and post-Soviet popular music Gastarbeiter—a German term originally used since the mid-1950s to denote temporary foreign workers in Germany Halychyna (Galicia)—historical kingdom that encompasses eastern parts of Poland and parts of western Ukraine, including Lviv, Ternopil, and the Ivano-Frankivsk regions hidnist—respect Holodomor (Famine Genocide of 1932–33)—literally “death by hunger,” during which approximately 4 million of the rural population died as the result of Stalin’s first Five-Year Plan, implemented between 1928 and 1932 hopak—originally a kozak social dance, performed by Ukrainian folk dance ensembles to exhibit dance athleticism; considered to be the national dance of Ukraine hryvnia—national currency of Ukraine; the name of the currency in medieval Kyivan Rus´ (882 ad–13th century) Hutsul—highlanders who live in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine and Romania kobza—a Ukrainian folk music instrument of the lute family, predecessor to the bandura, the variant most often used in staged choral and instrumental performance kobzar (s.), kobzari (pl.)—itinerant (often blind) Ukrainian minstrel who sang historical and religious epics (see dumy) and accompanied himself on the kobza kozak (Cossack)—in Ukraine, historical military forces who lived in a fortified territory known as Zaporizhska Sich on the lower Dnipro River and protected Ukrainian lands from invasion (1471–1775) kripatstvo—serfdom in the Russian Empire by which the majority of ethnic Ukrainians were enslaved until 1861 linchevat—to lynch; Russification of the English term magnitizdat—from the Russian words for “tape recorder” and “publishing”; selfcopied and self-distributed live audio recordings made to circumvent political censorship in the USSR marshrutky—home-grown transportation system of jitneys that was the forerunner of contemporary urban bus routes in the former Soviet Union mavpuvaty—“to copy”; from mavpa, “monkey”; used as a racial slur Melodiya—Soviet state-run music recording and production company mobilka—cell phone mulat—mixed race, implying African ancestry 197 Glossary mzungu—literally“somebodywhowandersaimlessly,”originallyusedinEastAfrica to describe European explorers; used as a racial slur against white people Neger—Russian translation of “Negro,” used in the USSR rayon—urban neighborhood (Ukraine) rok na kostiakh (literally “rock on bones”) and rok na rebrakh (“rock on ribs”)— recordings of predominantly Western music reproduced on old X-rays in the USSR to circumvent censorship sharavary—wide,colorfulpantswornbykozakfightersaspartofthemaletraditional eastern and central Ukrainian folk costume shokolad (n.), shokoladnyi (adj.)—chocolate sìdlisko (s.), sìdliska (pl.)—urban neighborhood (Slovakia) surzhyk—a combination of Ukrainian and Russian spoken in rural central and eastern Ukraine Ukrahop (украхоп in Cyrillic)—Ukrainian-language hip hop vyzhyvaty—literally “to survive”; used to describe difficulties of post-socialist living zarobitchany(m.),zarobitchanka(f.)—migrantlaborer;Ukrainianswhoworkabroad This page intentionally left blank ...


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Subject Headings

  • Rap (Music) -- Ukraine -- History and criticism.
  • Hip-hop -- Ukraine.
  • Blacks -- Race identity -- Ukraine.
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