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Illustrations FIGURE 2.1 U.S. Rep. Helen G. Douglas (D-CA) meeting with black union leaders in her Los Angeles home, 1944. 53 FIGURE 2.2 Number of Fair Employment Practices Bills introduced into Congress, 1943–1960. 54 FIGURE 2.3 Articles on Civil Rights and Congress in the New York Times and Washington Post by Type of Issue, 1943–1960. 55 FIGURE 2.4 U.S. Sen. Robert A. Taft (R-OH) addressing African American constituents at a YMCA in Dayton, Ohio, 1949. 77 FIGURE 3.1 “Watch Out!” PM, February 9, 1945. 101 FIGURE 3.2 Attorney Charles H. Tuttle of the New York State Temporary Commission against Discrimination (TCAD) endorsing the Ives-Quinn bill before a packed New York State Assembly Chamber, February 20, 1945. 107 FIGURE 4.1 Public support in the states for state-level FEP laws (c. 1945) by year of eventual passage. 123 FIGURE 4.2 California counties by proportion voting “yes” on Proposition 11 and proportion voting for Will Rogers, Jr. (Dem.), in the U.S. Senate election, November 1946. 130 FIGURE 4.3 Public support in Minnesota for state FEP legislation, 1947–1955. 146 FIGURE 4.4 “Take Down the Barrier: Republican Legislators,” Cleveland Press, March 20, 1951. 152 FIGURE 4.5 Predicted likelihood of passage by GOP control of veto point(s) and electoral competition. 161 FIGURE 5.1 U.S. Sen. Everett M. Dirksen (R-IL) on the cover of Time, June 19, 1964. 185 FIGURE 5.2 U.S. Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA) giving a speech during the California primaries, 1966. 197 FIGURE 5.3 U.S. Rep. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY) speaking at a press conference, 1971. 229 FIGURE A.1 Scatterplot of legislators by economic and social ideology: House Discharge Petition, 1945. 260 FIGURE A.2 Scatterplot of legislators by economic and social ideology: House Roll-Call Vote, 1971. 283 FIGURE A.3 Scatterplot of legislators by economic and social ideology: Senate Roll-Call Vote, 1972. 285 ...


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