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THE FIFTH FREEDOM PRINCETON STUDIES IN AMERICAN POLITICS HISTORICAL, INTERNATIONAL, AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES SERIES EDITORS IRA KATZNELSON, MARTIN SHEFTER, AND THEDA SKOCPOL A list of titles in this series appears at the back of the book THE FIFTH FREEDOM J O B S , P O L I T I C S , A N D C I V I L R I G H T S I N T H E U N I T E D S TAT E S , 1 9 4 1 – 1 9 7 2 Anthony S. Chen P R I N C E T O N U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S S P R I N C E T O N A N D O X F O R D Copyright © 2009 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 6 Oxford Street, Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1TW All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Chen, Anthony S., 1972– The fifth freedom : jobs, politics, and civil rights in the United States, 1941–1972 / Anthony S. Chen. p. cm. — (Princeton studies in American politics : historical, international, and comparative perspectives) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-691-13457-4 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-691-13953-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Affirmative action programs—United States—History—20th century. 2. Discrimination in employment—Government policy—United States— History—20th century. 3. African Americans—Employment—History— 20th century. I. Title. HF5549.5.A34C486 2009 331.13′3097309045—dc22 2009003503 British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book has been composed in Sabon Printed on acid-free paper. ∞ Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To my mom, dad, and sister ...


Subject Headings

  • Affirmative action programs -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
  • Discrimination in employment -- Government policy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
  • African Americans -- Employment -- History -- 20th century.
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