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Table of Contents Acknowledgments ix 1. Introduction 1 Practicalities 2 This Volume 3 Part I THEORY 2. Concepts of Niches 7 Major Themes in Niche Concepts 9 Grinnellian and Eltonian Niches 16 Estimating Grinnellian Niches: Practicalities 19 Summary 21 3. Niches and Geographic Distributions 23 Relations between Environmental and Geographic Spaces 24 The Ecological Equations 26 The BAM Diagram: A Thinking Framework 29 Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions 31 Estimating Geographic Areas and Ecological Niches 40 Summary 46 Part II PRACTICE 4. Niches and Distributions in Practice: Overview 51 General Principles 52 Steps to Building Niche Models 56 5. Species’ Occurrence Data 62 Types of Occurrence Data 62 Occurrence Data Content and Availability 77 Summary 81 vi CONTENTS 6. Environmental Data 82 Species-Environment Relationships 82 Environmental Data for Ecological Niche Modeling 85 Environmental Data in Practice 87 Summary 95 7. Modeling Ecological Niches 97 What Is Being Estimated? 98 Modeling Algorithms 101 Implementation 112 Model Calibration 112 Model Complexity and Overfitting 123 Study Region Extent and Resolution Revisited 125 Model Extrapolation and Transferability 126 Differences among Methods and Selection of “Best” Models 128 Characterizing Ecological Niches 131 Summary 137 8. From Niches to Distributions 138 Potential Distributional Areas 138 Nonequilibrium Distributions 141 Detecting and Processing Nonequilibrium Distributions 143 Summary 149 9: Evaluating Model Performance and Significance 150 Presences, Absences, and Errors 150 Calibration and Evaluation Datasets 153 Overfitting, Performance, Significance, and Evaluation Space 154 Selection of Evaluation Data 156 Evaluation of Performance 162 Assessing Model Significance 167 Future Directions 176 Summary 180 Part III APPLICATIONS 10. Introduction to Applications 185 11. Discovering Biodiversity 189 Discovering Populations 190 CONTENTS vii Discovering Species Limits 191 Discovering Unknown Species 192 Connection to Theory 192 Practical Considerations 193 Review of Applications 195 Discussion 198 12. Conservation Planning and Climate Change Effects 200 Generalities 200 Connection to Theory 201 Practical Considerations 206 Review of Applications 208 13. Species’ Invasions 215 Connection to Theory 216 Practical Considerations 216 Review of Applications 218 Caveats and Limitations 222 Future Directions and Challenges 224 14. The Geography of Disease Transmission 226 Connection to Theory 229 Practical Considerations 229 Review of Applications 230 Caveats and Limitations 235 Future Directions and Challenges 236 15. Linking Niches with Evolutionary Processes 238 Changes in the Available Environment 238 Niche Conservatism 240 Tests of Conservatism 243 Context 250 Learning More about Ecological Niche Evolution 250 Future Directions and Challenges 254 16. Conclusions 256 Appendices Appendix A: Glossary of Symbols Used 261 Appendix B: Set Theory for G- and E-Space 266 viii CONTENTS Glossary 269 Bibliography 281 ...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781400840670
Related ISBN
9780691136882
MARC Record
OCLC
761318478
Pages
328
Launched on MUSE
2015-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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