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Notes Abbreviations BAB Bundesarchiv Berlin-Lichterfelde BLHA Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv GStAPK Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz IISG International Institute of Social History LAB Landesarchiv Berlin VDR Stenographische Berichte über die Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags Introduction 1. Throughout this book, I use the capitalized “Socialist” and “Socialism” interchangeably with “Social Democrat” and “Social Democracy” to refer to the German Social Democratic movement and party, and the lower-case “socialist” and “socialism” to refer to the adherent or ideology broadly. Many anarchists, while not Social Democrats, definitely considered themselves socialists. 2. Lothar Gall, Bismarck: Der weisse Revolutionär (Frankfurt am Main: Propyläen, 1980). See also David Blackbourn, “Bismarck: The Sorcerer’s Apprentice,” in Populists and Patricians: Essays in Modern German History (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987), 33–44. 3. Thomas Nipperdey, Deutsche Geschichte, 1866–1918, vol. 2, Machtstaat vor der Demokratie (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1992). 4. Manfred Rauh, Die Parlamentarisierung des Deutschen Reiches (Düsseldorf: Droste, 1977). 5. Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, vol. 3, Von der “Deutschen Doppelrevolution ” bis zum Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges, 1849–1914 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1995), 772, 771. 6. David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley, The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), 276. Blackbourn presents the same perspective in expanded version in The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), especially 408–12, though the whole chapter on “The Old Politics and the New” (400–459) is illuminating on the advent of mass politics. 7. Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 10–11. 8. Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Imperial Germany, 1867–1918: Politics, Culture, and Society in an Authoritarian State, trans. Richard Deveson (London: Arnold, 1995), 19; originally published as Der autoritäre Nationalstaat: Verfassung, Gesellschaft und Kultur des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1990). 9. Brett Fairbairn, Democracy in the Undemocratic State: The German Reichstag Elections of 1898 and 1903 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), 16. Thomas Kühne, Dreiklassenwahlrecht und Wahlkultur in Preussen, 1867–1914: Landtagswahlen zwischen korporativer Tradition und politischem Massenmarkt (Düsseldorf: Droste, 1994), while focused on Prussian state electoral culture, suggests that Social Democrats and Catholics attempted to employ the issues and electoral behaviors that governed national elections to break down the restrictive culture, as well as law, of Prussian elections. 10. Margaret Lavinia Anderson and Kenneth Barkin (“The Myth of the Puttkamer Purge and the Reality of the Kulturkampf: Some Reflections on the Historiography of Imperial Germany ,” Journal of Modern History 54, no. 4 [December 1982]: 685) note that Bismarck faced “a Reichstag in which the opposition outnumbered governmental forces 272 to 125 from 1881 to 1884, and 240 to 157 from 1884 to 1887.” 11. Margaret Lavinia Anderson, Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 21, 20, 12. 12. Ibid., 419. 13. Ibid., 287. 14. Brett Fairbairn, “Interpreting Wilhelmine Elections: National Issues, Fairness Issues, and Electoral Mobilization,” in Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern Germany: New Perspectives, ed. Larry Eugene Jones and James Retallack (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 41. The same themes are covered in Democracy in the Undemocratic State, 45–51. Jonathan Sperber, The Kaiser’s Voters: Electors and Elections in Imperial Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 269n4, argues, by contrast, that Imperial German politics was marked by an oscillation between the importance of “national” and “economic” issues. 15. Fairbairn, Democracy in the Undemocratic State, 65. He also notes the growing agitation in Saxony against the 1896 franchise law that had been modeled on the Prussian three-class system. 16. James Retallack, “‘What Is to Be Done?’ The Red Specter, Franchise Questions, and the Crisis of Conservative Hegemony in Saxony, 1896–1909,” Central European History 23, no. 4 (December 1990): 271–312. 17. An excellent discussion of the historiography of electoral culture in the Kaiserreich can be found in Matthew Jefferies, Contesting the German Empire, 1871–1918 (Malden, MA: Blackwell , 2008), especially 103–12, though the entire chapter on “‘Democracy in the Undemocratic State’?” (90–125) is illuminating. 18. See Anderson’s fascinating discussion of this institution in Practicing Democracy, 295– 305. 19. Benjamin Carter Hett, Death in the Tiergarten: Murder and Criminal Justice in the Kaiser ’s Berlin (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004). 226 NOTES TO PAGES 7–9 20. Martin Kohlrausch, Der Monarch im Skandal: Die Logik der Massenmedien und die Transformation der...