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N O T E S NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION 1. Kawabata, Yasunari, Snow Country, trans. Edward G. Seidensticker (New York: Berkley, 1960). I have altered slightly Seidensticker’s translation, in which the image of Heaven’s River is rendered “the Milky Way.” 2. For terms such as haikai and hokku, see comments later in this introduction and the glossary. 3. Kenneth Rexroth, A Hundred Poems from the Japanese (New York: New Directions, 1964); Cid Corman and Kamaike Susumu, Back Roads to Far Towns: Bashō’s Okuno -hosomichi (New York: Mushinsha, 1968); Sam Hamill, Bashō’s Ghost (Seattle: Broken Moon, 1989); Robert Hass, The Essential Haiku: Versions of Bashō, Buson, and Shiki (Hopewell, NJ: Ecco Press, 1994). 4. See John Elder, Following the Brush: An American Encounter with Classical Japanese Culture (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), and Imagining the Earth: Poetry and the Vision of Nature (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985); Gretel Ehrlich, Islands, The Universe, Home (New York: Penguin, 1991). 5. Cor van den Heuvel, ed., The Haiku Anthology: English Language Haiku by Contemporary American and Candian Poets (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999); Bruce Ross, ed., Journey to the Interior: American Versions of Haibun (Rutland , Vt.: Tuttle, 1998). 155 6. Makoto Ueda’s Matsuo Bashō (New York: Twayne, 1970) remains a useful introduction to his life and writings, and his Bashō and His Interpreters: Selected Hokku with Commentary (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), a translation of 255 of Bashō’s hokku along selected Japanese commentaries, is invaluable. Haruo Shirane, Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), provides a learned discussion of some of the cultural traditions at work in Bashō’s writings. Peipei Qiu’s detailed analyses of the Daoist influence on Bashō is illuminating. 7. For a helpful introduction to waka, see Earl Miner, An Introduction to Japanese Court Poetry (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968). 8. See Earl Miner, Japanese Linked Poetry: An Account with Translations of Renga and Haikai Sequences (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979), and Hiroaki Sato, One Hundred Frogs: From Renga to Haiku to English (New York: Weatherhill, 1983). 9. Very occasionally there are “miscellaneous” hokku, with no season word. In renga, while other stanzas may or may not have a season word, in the opening hokku it is required. And also very occasionally a poet might write a poem about a season other than the current one. 10. For a discussion of Shiki’s impact on our understanding of haiku, see Shirane, Traces of Dreams. 11. For a discussion of the religious significance of the communal dimension of renga, see Gary Ebersole, “The Buddhist Ritual Use of Linked Poetry in Medieval Japan,” Eastern Buddhist 16 (1983): 50–71. 12. Most translators of Bashō’s poetry have left out the title or headnote. Ueda, Bashō and His Interpreters, and Shirane, Traces of Dreams, are notable exceptions. See Shirane, Traces of Dreams, 160–184, for a valuable discussion of greeting poems. 13. For a helpful discussion of poetic essences, see Shirane, Traces of Dreams. 1 5 6 B a s h ō’ s H a i k u 14. For an application of this literary approach to Chinese poetry, see James J. Y. Liu, Chinese Theories of Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975). 15. For a fuller discussion of this idea, see the introduction to the companion volume of this book, Bashō’s Journey: The Literary Prose of Matsuo Bashō. 16. In some cases, it was difficult or impossible for me to find out the genus and species, and in others experts give different names. One can dream of a “field guide” to Japanese literature, which would include a thorough scientific and cultural description of plants and animals, with not only photographs but also recordings of the sounds of nature (e.g., bird songs, pine wind) that are so important to the literature . 17. For Bashō’s principle of the unchanging and the ever-changing , see Shirane, Traces of Dreams, 263–269. For a discussion of Bashō’s stylistic development, see Ueda, Matsuo Bashō. 18. For a discussion of the effect of cutting words, see Shirane, Traces of Dreams, 82–115. 19. Probably the only bird we commonly do this with is the owl. NOTES TO THE HOKKU The season of the hokku is followed by the season word(s). One asterisk indicates the image is discussed in the section “Major Nature Images in Bashō’s Hokku.” Also see the glossary for images related to the...


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