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Notes chapter 1 1. William L. Barney, The Passage of the Republic: An Interdisciplinary History of Nineteenth-Century America (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1987), 9, 14; Jacqueline Barbara Carr, After the Siege: A Social History of Boston, 1775–1800 (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2005), 87; David B. Danbom, Born in the Country: A History of Rural America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 86, 95; D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America, vol. 1, Atlantic America, 1492–1800 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986), 358; James A. Henretta and Gregory H. Nobles, Evolution and Revolution: American Society, 1600–1820 (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1987), 226; Joseph J. Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington (New York: Vintage Books, 2004), 269. 2. George Rogers Taylor, The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860 (New York: Harper and Row, 1951), 35, 63–64, 89, 396–398; Stuart Bruchey, Enterprise: The Dynamic Economy of a Free People (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), 225–227, 233; Douglass C. North, The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790–1860 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1966), v; Jeremy Atack and Peter Passell, A New Economic View of American History: From Colonial Times to 1940 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994), 161; Louis C. Hunter, Steamboats on Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History (New York: Octagon Books, 1969), 22–23. New York City population includes Brooklyn. 3. Hal S. Barron, “Rediscovering the Majority: The New Rural History of the Nineteenth-Century North,” Historical Methods 19, no. 4 (Fall 1986): 141; 168 Notes to Pages 2–5 Charles Sellers, The Market Revolution: America, 1815–1846 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 123, 138, 153, 161, 208, 346, 374. 4. Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 5–6, 44–47, 217–221, 563–569; Gordon Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 2–4, 317–325, 702–708; John Majewski, A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia before the Civil War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 7–8. 5. Beatrice Craig, Backwoods Consumers and Homespun Capitalists: The Rise of a Market Culture in Eastern Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009), 13, 19; Naomi Lamoreaux, “Rethinking the Transition to Capitalism in the Early American Northeast,” Journal of American History 90, no. 2 (September 2003): 438–439, 461; Joyce Oldham Appleby, “The Vexed Story of Capitalism Told by American Historians,” Journal of the Early Republic 21, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 14; Richard Lyman Bushman, “Markets and Composite Farms in Early America,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 55, no. 3 (July 1998): 361–366. 6. Wood, Empire of Liberty, 317, 322–323, 706–707; Stephen Aron, American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006), 22–23, 50–51; Simpson Kensinger to Lewis Kensinger, November 7, December 20, 1858, Kensinger Family Papers, State Historical Society of Missouri, University of Missouri, Columbia (SHSM); William Davis Jr. to William Van Lear, November 30, 1838, Missouri History Papers, Missouri History Museum Archives, St. Louis (MHM); June 13, 22, 1846, Charles Peabody Diary, Journals and Diaries Collection, MHM. (When quoting from these and other letters and documents used throughout this book, I have retained the spelling, punctuation, and capitalization of the originals.) 7. Diana Mutti Burke, On Slavery’s Border: Missouri’s Small Slaveholding Households, 1815–1865 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010), 9, 13, 29, 34, 48–51, 57; R. Douglas Hurt, Agriculture and Slavery in Missouri’s Little Dixie (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992), xi–xiv, 6–7. 8. Kathleen DuVal, The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), 103–104; Colin G. Calloway, One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and Clark (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003), 362–365, 380– Notes to Pages 5–8 169 382; Willard H. Rollings, The Osage: An Ethnohistorical Survey of Hegemony on the Prairie-Plains (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992), 6–8, 235–237; Anne F. Hyde, Empires, Nations, and Families: A History of the North American West, 1800–1860 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011), 239, 314–317. 9. William E. Foley, The Genesis of Missouri: From Wilderness Outpost to Statehood (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989), 1, 6–7, 24–25; James Neal Primm, Lion of the Valley: St. Louis, Missouri, 1764–1980 (St...