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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface....................................................................................................................... xvii Acknowledgements........................................................................................... xviii Concepts and terms.............................................................................................. xx First Nations.................................................................................................. xx Culture areas................................................................................................. xxi Interior Plateau....................................................................................... xxi Northwest Plains.................................................................................... xxi Archaeological units and concepts................................................................. xxi Notes on interview transcriptions....................................................................... xxii Introduction...................................................................................................................1 Study overview......................................................................................................3 Chapter 1: Background: Stories of Place.................................................................7 Peter Fidler’s journal...............................................................................................8 Stories about Old Man......................................................................................... 11 Old Man in Siksikaitsitapi oral tradition......................................................... 11 Old Man in Nakoda oral tradition................................................................. 13 Old Man in Tsuut’ina oral tradition............................................................... 13 Old Man in other oral traditions.................................................................... 14 Oldman River as a calque.................................................................................... 15 Other accounts of the playing ground.................................................................. 17 Hugh Munro, ca. 1823................................................................................... 17 George Dawson, 1883.................................................................................... 19 Ethnographic sources..................................................................................... 20 Current knowledge of the playing ground..................................................... 21 Old Man’s Playing Ground as a lost place............................................................. 24 Smallpox epidemics of the 1700s.................................................................... 24 Disparity in wealth and access to European goods.......................................... 26 The reserve era: Cultural destruction and impact on traditional knowledge.... 28 Chapter 2: Ethnohistory of the Hoop‑and-Arrow Game.................................... 35 Siksikaitsitapi accounts.......................................................................................... 37 The game among other groups............................................................................ 44 A Northwest Plains/Interior Plateau variant......................................................... 49 Reinventing the wheel game......................................................................... 52 Discussion:Archaeological visibility of the hoop-and-arrow game........................ 56 Antiquity of the hoop-and-pole game............................................................ 56 Gambling and trade....................................................................................... 57 viii Chapter 3: Landform Identification & Geomorphic Assessment....................... 61 Historic descriptions of site location..................................................................... 62 Previous research in the Gap................................................................................ 65 Modern stone features in the Gap........................................................................ 74 The low terrace................................................................................................... 78 Hydrographic data................................................................................................ 83 Geomorphic assessment: Methods........................................................................ 85 Geomorphic assessment: Results........................................................................... 87 Discussion............................................................................................................ 90 Chapter 4: Archaeological Assessment of the Lower Landform......................... 95 Archaeological assessment: Methods..................................................................... 96 Archaeological assessment: Results........................................................................ 98 Trench A........................................................................................................ 98 Trench B....................................................................................................... 99 Trench C..................................................................................................... 100 Subsurface probing and shovel testing.......................................................... 101 Soil profiles and dating................................................................................. 104 Discussion.......................................................................................................... 108 Chapter 5: Archaeological Assessment of DlPo-8............................................... 111 Methods............................................................................................................. 111 Field............................................................................................................ 111 Laboratory................................................................................................... 113 Site Description................................................................................................. 114 Shovel testing, surface finds, and excavation block selection.......................... 115 Site size........................................................................................................ 119 Area A Overview............................................................................................... 120 Stratigraphy & radiocarbon dates.................................................................. 120 Features....................................................................................................... 124 Feature 1............................................................................................... 124 Feature 2............................................................................................... 125 Feature 3............................................................................................... 126 Feature 4............................................................................................... 126 Feature 5............................................................................................... 126 Area B Overview............................................................................................... 127 Stratigraphy & radiocarbon dates.................................................................. 127 Features....................................................................................................... 130 Feature 6............................................................................................... 130 Feature 7............................................................................................... 130 Feature 8............................................................................................... 130 Feature 9............................................................................................... 133 ix Slope correction................................................................................................. 133 Historic material analysis.................................................................................... 135 Lithic analysis..................................................................................................... 136 Raw materials.............................................................................................. 137 Lithic spatial distribution.............................................................................. 142 Debitage...................................................................................................... 149 Microblades and ridge flakes.................................................................. 151 Tools and cores............................................................................................ 159 Projectile points..................................................................................... 161 Bifaces................................................................................................... 168 Groundstone.......................................................................................... 170 Scrapers................................................................................................. 172 Unifaces................................................................................................ 174 Wedges.................................................................................................. 175 Choppers............................................................................................... 176 Edgeworn flakes.................................................................................... 177 Flake tools, bimarginal........................................................................... 183 Flake tools, composite............................................................................ 184 Flake tools, unimarginal......................................................................... 185 Net sinkers............................................................................................ 188 Ochre/pigment..................................................................................... 189 Bipolar Cores........................................................................................ 189 Core fragments...................................................................................... 191 Faunal analysis.................................................................................................... 192 FBR analysis...................................................................................................... 195 Summary........................................................................................................... 196 Occupation 1a............................................................................................. 197 Occupation 1b............................................................................................. 198 Occupation 1c............................................................................................. 199 Occupation 2............................................................................................... 200 Discussion.......................................................................................................... 201 Synthesis & Conclusions............................................................................................. 205 Old Man’s Playing Ground and DlPo-8.............................................................. 205 Future research................................................................................................... 207 Recommendations for long-term site management............................................ 208 References Cited........................................................................................................ 211 Appendix A Interview Transcripts................................................................................................... 233 Interview with Allan Pard................................................................................... 233 x Interview with Henry Holloway........................................................................ 245 Interview with Art Calling Last.......................................................................... 259 Appendix B Hoop-and-Pole GameVariants.................................................................................... 277 ...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780776621364
MARC Record
OCLC
871228018
Pages
300
Launched on MUSE
2014-05-03
Language
English
Open Access
No
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