restricted access 8. Further Reading: From Historical GIS to Spatial Humanities: An Evolving Literature
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186 Further Reading: From Historical GIS to Spatial Humanities: An Evolving Literature Ian N. Gregory eight As was stated in the introduction, the use of GIS to study the past has evolved rapidly over the last decade or so, and we now stand at a position where the field is becoming both deeper and broader. As the field develops, so too does the literature, which has becomeincreasinglyvoluminousbutalsoincreasinglydisparate ,makingit difficult to keep track of developments in the field and to see what other researchers working on different topics but with similar challenges are doing. This chapter attempts to summarize this literature. It starts with publications that provide an overview of the field, moves on to databases and methods, and then turns to applied research before finishing by introducing the emerging fields of humanities GIS and spatial humanities. The chapter describes the current literature. It is not meant to be fully comprehensive and does not include earlier chapters in this book unless completely necessary. It also only includes conventional academic publications , thus ignoring web resources (other than articles in electronic journals), of which there are many. For a more comprehensive list of publications and a list of web resources, see the Historical GIS Research Network website ( Suggestions for updates to this site are always welcome. Although there were a few papers written on HGIS in the 1990s, the growing momentum and maturity of the field was marked by a special edition of Social Science History (vol. 24, no. 3), published in 2000 and edited by A. K. Knowles. Since then, this literature has grown rapidly and now includes a significant number of books from high quality university presses and articles in many of the leading journals. Many of the Further Reading 187 early papers, such as most of those in the 2000 volume of Social Science History,talkedabouttheconstructionofdatabasesandthepotentialthat these systems would have once they were completed. By the mid-2000s significant works of applied scholarship started to appear in many fields, with urban history, environmental history, historical demography, and medieval history being particularly rich seams. As was discussed in the introduction, two trends are apparent. First, it is becoming increasingly common to talk of spatial history rather than historical GIS, reflecting a move from a technological focus to the applied. Second, from its origins in social science history, the use of GIS is spreading across the discipline and into new humanities subjects. At present its use in these disciplines is perhaps where it was in history several years ago, with the emphasis more on creating databases and their potential for scholarship rather than on finished articles. Nevertheless, this is clearly a rapidly developing and exciting growth area that is often referred to as humanities GIS or spatial humanities. Historical GIS Perhaps the first book that could be called a historical GIS book, althoughitpredatesthetermbysomeyears ,isM.Goerke,ed., Coordinates for Historical Maps(St.Katharinen:Max-PlanckInstitutfürGeschichte, 1994); however, this is really only of interest as it illustrates just how far the field has developed. After the 2000 volume of Social Science History, three publications appeared in quick succession that further defined the field. I. N. Gregory, A Place in History: A Guide to Using GIS in Historical Research (Oxford: Oxbow, 2003) outlined what GIS had to offer to historians at a technical level (see /publications/ig-gis.pdf). A. K. Knowles, Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History (Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press, 2002) and a special edition of History and Computing (vol. 13, no. 1 [2001]), edited by P. S. Ell and I. N. Gregory, presented collections of essays on the state of the field at that time. Edited volumes have continued to be produced at an increasing pace, with the work that they contain developing considerably. A special edition of Historical Geography (vol. 33) appeared in 2005, and Placing History: How GIS Is Changing Historical Scholarship was published in 188 Ian N. Gregory 2008 (Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press); both are edited by A. K. Knowles. A special edition of Social Science Computer Review (vol. 27, no. 3), edited by T. J. Bailey and J. B. M. Schick; a Dutch volume, Tijd en Ruimte : Nieuwe toepassingen van GIS in de alfawetenschappen (Time and space: New applications of GIS in the humanities) (Utrecht: DANS), edited by O. Boonstra and A. Schuurman; and a double issue of the International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing (vol. 3, nos. 1–2) that was largely devoted...