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Notes Introduction Epigraph. Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, eds. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonnée des sciences, des artes et des métiers (Paris, 1751–65), 1:659–60. 1. William B. Ashworth Jr., “Natural History and the Emblematic World View,” in Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, ed. David C. Lindberg and Robert S. Westman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 324; Eric Jorink, “In the Twilight Zone: Isaac Vossius and the Scientific Communities in France, England and the Dutch Republic ,” in Isaac Vossius (1618–89) between Science and Scholarship, ed. Eric Jorink and Dirk van Miert (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 155–56. 2. Roger Ariew, Descartes and the Last Scholastics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999); Cees Leijenhorst, The Mechanisation of Aristotelianism: The Late Aristotelian Setting of Thomas Hobbes’s Natural Philosophy (Leiden: Brill, 2002); Michael Edwards , “Aristotelianism, Descartes, and Hobbes,” Historical Journal 50 (2007): 449–64. 3. Alfred North Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926), 10–14; A. R. Hall, The Scientific Revolution, 1500–1800: The Formation of the Modern Scientific Attitude (London: Longmans, 1954), 1–33. 4. William R. Newman, Atoms and Alchemy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 85–98. 5. Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (New York: Appleton, 1901). 6. Stephen Menn, “The Intellectual Setting,” in The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy, ed. Daniel Garber and Michael Ayers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 1:41. Ann Blair writes that “most” were; see “Mosaic Physics and the Search for a Pious Natural Philosophy in the Late Renaissance,” Isis 91 (2000): 33. 7. Fortunio Liceti, De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum & homines (Udine, 1645), 88. 8. Amos Funkenstein, Theology and the Scientific Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 3–5. 9. Richard H. Popkin, The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). 10. William R. Shea and Mariano Artigas, Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 158–200; Mario Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 313–52. 182 notes to pages 3–5 11. Margaret J. Osler, “When Did Pierre Gassendi Become a Libertine?” in Heterodoxy in Early Modern Science and Religion, ed. John Brooke and Ian Maclean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 169–92. 12. Stephen Gaukroger, Francis Bacon and the Transformation of Early-Modern Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 74–83; Steven Matthews, Science and Theology in the Thought of Francis Bacon (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008), 51–74. 13. Peter Harrison, The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998), and The Fall of Man and the Foundation of Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). 14. Roger Ariew, “Descartes and the Jesuits: Doubt, Novelty, and the Eucharist,” in Jesuit Science and the Republic of Letters, ed. by Mordechai Feingold (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003), 157–94; Pietro Redondi, Galileo eretico (Turin: Einaudi, 1983), 289–344. 15. Christoph Lüthy and Cees Leijenhorst, “The Erosion of Aristotelianism: Confessional Physics in Early Modern Germany and the Dutch Republic,” in The Dynamics of Aristotelian Natural Philosophy from Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century, ed. Cees Leijenhorst et al. (Leiden: Brill, 2002), 375–411; Sachiko Kusukawa, The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: The Case of Philip Melanchthon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995). 16. David C. Lindberg, “Medieval Science and Its Religious Context,” Osiris, 2nd ser., 10 (1995): 77. 17. Pierre Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique, 5th ed. (Amsterdam, 1740), article on “Aristote,” 1:327. This and all subsequent translations are mine unless noted. 18. Silvia Berti, “At the Roots of Unbelief,” Journal of the History of Ideas 56 (1995): 555–75; Paul Oskar Kristeller, “The Myth of Renaissance Atheism and the French Tradition of Free Thought,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 6 (1968): 233–43; Lucien Febvre, Le problème de l’incroyance au XVIe siècle, la religion de Rabelais (Paris: Michel , 1947). 19. Charles B. Schmitt, Aristotle and the Renaissance (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), 10–33. 20. Edward Grant, “Ways to Interpret the Terms ‘Aristotelian’ and ‘Aristotelianism’ in Medieval and Renaissance Natural Philosophy,” History of Science 25 (1987): 335–58. 21. J. M. M. Hans Thijssen, “Some Reflections on Continuity and Transformation of Aristotelianism in Medieval (and Renaissance) Natural Philosophy,” Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale 2...


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