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209 INDEX actuality (as television content), 142, 143, 145, 149, 158, 159, 164 advertising, 10, 11, 13, 20fig, 23, 59, 69, 97, 101, 108, 110, 113, 118, 119, 124, 127, 132, 137, 139, 146, 148, 149, 156, 158, 171n32, 187n38; commercial broadcast model, 99, 100, 104, 116, 150, 152, 186n32, 191n118; conflicts over, 99, 101, 104, 105, 185n24; regulation of, 115; spot advertising, 157. See also commercials ; sponsorship Aitken, Hugh, 7, 10 Albertson, Roy, 114, 115 Alexanderson, Ernst, 5, 21, 22, 37, 38, 54, 56, 129, 177n9, 178n14, 178n15 Altman, Rick, 132 amateurs: containment and marginalization of, 4, 13, 14, 54, 58–60, 66, 88, 91, 92, 100, 117, 162, 177n1; culture of experimentation and invention, 44, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 63, 67–70, 75, 85, 88, 177n9; encouraged to seek credentials, 58–61; heterogeneity of, 58; national organizations of, 117; point-to-many uses by, 4; purported identities of, 51, 56, 58, 69, 70, 91, 178n12; subordinated to engineers/electricians, 52–56, 90fig, 91; television transmission, 88, 92. See also dx-ing American Marconi Corporation, 4, 117 American Radio Relay League, 117 American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), 96, 97, 98, 99 American Telegraph and Telephone Co. (AT&T), 1, 4, 5, 11, 29, 32, 34, 42, 48, 52, 174n84; Bell television demonstration, 40; toll broadcasting, 99; WEAF (station), 5, 98, 117 Amos ’n’ Andy Show, The (radio, later television program), 110, 114, 118, 155 Armstrong, Edwin, regenerative circuit, 28, 69 Arnold, John, 26, 178n14 Arnold, Matthew, 106, 160 articulation(s), 160, 161, 163, 164, 184n5; of corporate liberalism, 7; of engineering, 28; of an essence or nature of television, 2, 13, 43, 91, 144, 157, 158, 160, 162, 164; of gadgets, 68, 87; of hierarchy of expertise, 59; of national broadcast models, 121, 123; of production norms, 152, 155, 196n67; of progress, 29, 30, 31, 39, 40, 44, 56; of public and private, 100; of quality, 9, 43, 93, 94, 96, 100, 104, 105, 107, 109, 111, 112, 118, 119, 129, 140, 192n2; of technical populism, 68; of television programming as distinct from technology, 136–137; of television technologies, 12, 13, 17, 24, 28, 31, 49, 160; of television to adjacent media, 30–31, 40, 130, 139, 140, 145, 147; of television to human perception, 30–31, 130; of an “unconscious” audience, 149. See also Hall, Stuart Arvin, W. B., 22 ASCAP. See American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers AT&T. See American Telegraph and Telephone Co. audience(s): adapted for television, 15, 1 1 1– 1 14, 150, 156; attentiveness or lack of, 67, 77fig, 79, 80, 83, 91, 1 14, 129, 131, 132, 137, 146, 150, 155, 165, 181n84; broadcasting effects on, 1 10, 127, 128, 132, 141, 149, 186n34, 194n46; critics’ dissatisfaction with term, 23; disciplining of, 54, 55, 71, 91, 107, 108, 133, 137, 162, 165; for early television, 38, 42, 133, 137, 151, 177n124; as fans, 62, 67, 72, 83, 102, 108, 162, 179n33; fragments, 14, 15, 162; institutional assumptions and constructions of, 12, 14, 16, 40, 46, 49, 51, 54, 62, 65, 67, 69, 71, 79, 89, 92, 93, 98, 106, 108–1 16, 124, 131, 132, 144, 149, 158, 159, 162, 164, 181n84, 185n12, 190n91, 193n15; investment in broadcasting infrastructure by, 124, 125; as “invisible fiction,” 65; mass, 12, 91, 106–109, 1 1 1, 1 12, 129, 149, 163; measurement and feedback, 107–1 10, 138, 139, 144, 150, 153–156, 195n47; negotiations between public and private, 72, 73fig, 85, 1 1 1, 192n1; paedocratic imaginings of, 14, 65, 67, 89, 1 14, 1 15, 189n75; participation by, 92, 108, 129, 131, 142, 145, 146, 162, 199n12; passivity, 13, 14, 54, 67, 69, 71, 72, 80, 149; protection of, 64–66, 48, 1 14, 163; quality and, 96, 98, 99, 106–1 16, 127, 162, 163, 197n93; rural, 101, 102, 106, 1 1 1, 187n47, 192n129; studio, 146, 155, 156; tastes, 2, 12, 15, 79, 92, 95, 100, 109, 1 10, 1 12, 1 15, 129, 134, 139, 155, 158, 165, 193n24 210 INDEX audion tube, 22, 28 Auslander, Philip, 21 authority, 8–12; allocation and use of, 9, 89–92; centralized, 114, 123, 136; and containment of amateurs, 13, 14, 51–62; contesting claims to, 11, 55, 58–60, 67, 68, 70, 71, 113; contingent, 14, 71; creating a hierarchy of experts, users, and audiences , 51–92; cultural, 11, 14, 23, 25, 70, 91, 95, 96, 113, 142, 157, 160–165; differential claims to...


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Subject Headings

  • Television broadcasting -- Social aspects -- United States.
  • Television broadcasting -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
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