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237 Index Abu Ghraib, 132, 135 Afghanistan, 123–24, 131–32, 134 Alabama Journal, 72 Albright, Madeleine, 8–9 Ali, Alaa Mohammad, 140–42 Alpha Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st Infantry Brigade, 67 Al Qaeda, 141–42 Americal Division, 70, 93, 193n1. See also My Lai massacre American Bar Association, 27, 54 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 56–57 American exceptionalism, 7–11, 168n11. See also Geneva Conventions; jurisdictional gap (in U. S. legal codes); sovereignty; United Nations American Servicemembers’ Protection Act (ASPA), 159–61 American Veterans Committee, 55 antiwar movement, 47–48, 58–59 Applegate, Douglas, 143–44 Arends, Leslie C., 74 Article 32 investigations, 89, 104, 138, 231n179 Article I courts, 38, 78 Article III courts, 20–23, 38–39, 43–45, 78–80, 119, 129, 139–41 Articles for the Government of the Navy, 14 Articles of War, 14, 34 Ashcroft, John, 155 atrocity crimes. See Geneva Conventions; Nuremberg Trials; war crimes; specific atrocities Bagram Air Force Base, 132 Barbera, Vincent, 143 Barker, Frank A., 66–69, 88 Barnes, Joseph, 230n154 Behnke, Jerry, 142 Belknap, Michal, 4, 102 Bennett, Charles E., 54, 59–64, 93, 124–25, 190n74, 219n7 Bilton, Michael, 4, 86 Black, Hugo: civilians’ UCMJ applicability and, 37–39, 44, 130, 180n58, 182n80; treaty law and, 39–47; veterans’ UCMJ rights and, 1–2, 18–24, 35, 174n33, 175n58. See also Reid v. Covert; Toth v. Quarles Blackwater (contractors), 131, 135–36 Blair, Tony, 160 Bloody Sunday, 135–36 Bolton, John, 10–11 Boumediene v. Bush, 228n130 Brandeis, Louis, 19 Bravo Company, 4th Battalion, 3rd Infantry Brigade, 66–69, 84, 87, 100, 102–3, 111–12, 116–17 Breidenstein, Julia, 108 Bretenstein, Peter, 214n93 Breuer, Lanny, 134 Bricker, John (and Bricker Amendment), 27–31, 40–42, 119 Brooke, Edward, 71, 91 Brooks, Overton, 18 Brooks, Stephen, 68, 88 Buchanan, Patrick, 82 Burton, Harold, 23, 43 Bush, George H. W., 128 Bush, George W., 10, 152, 159–60, 170n44 Butterfield, Alexander, 99, 209n11 Buzhardt, Fred, 94 Cabranes, José, 130, 158, 216n126 Caffey, Eugene, 25, 52 Calley, William: conviction of, 2–4, 105–9, 111, 113–16, 118, 143; Ervin’s opinion on, 118–20; illegal orders of, 67–68; prosecution of, 71–72, 87–89, 97, 105. See also My Lai massacre; Nixon, Richard; sentences (in atrocity cases) capital cases, 41–45, 150, 183n107, 184n111, 231n179 Carson, Mark, 93 Index 238 Celler, Emanuel, 34 Central Intelligence Agency, 132 certiorari issues, 121, 126, 141, 181n75, 218n134 Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Brigade: inquiries into, 70; My Lai actions of, 66–69, 91; prosecutions of, 4, 71–72, 81–82, 88–89, 104 Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo Tribunal), 6, 32 Chicago Sun Times, 72 CID (Criminal Investigation Division), 71, 87, 91, 102–3, 203n4 Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into U.S. War Crimes (CCI), 111 Civil and Political Rights Covenant, 30 civilians (accompanying armed forces): contractors as, 121, 123–41, 159, 162; Iraqi-, 135–36, 140–51, 229n149; prosecutions of, 38–47, 127–29; UCMJ’s applicability to, 2, 34, 40–41, 44–45, 50–51, 58–59, 75, 121, 184n108, 200n102, 217n128; Vietnamese-, 57, 63–64, 66–84, 94–96, 109, 118. See also Department of Defense; Iraq War; Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act; My Lai massacre; Reid v. Covert; Uniform Code of Military Justice Civil Liberties Committee, 35 Clark, Tom, 21, 37–38, 43 clemency, 3, 32, 64, 94–96, 107–10, 116, 148–50, 205n32 Clergy and Laymen Concerned (group), 58 Cleveland Plain Dealer, 72 Clifford, Clark, 63 Clinton, Bill, 128, 131–32 Cochran, Roy B., 68 code committee (of the armed forces), 49–52, 54, 62 Cold War, 12, 27–47, 128 Cole, W. Sterling, 34–35, 179n41 commissions (military tribunals), 74, 76–92, 109–17, 127–30, 198n69 Congress (U. S.): Geneva Conventions and, 25–27, 30; My Lai briefings and, 74–86, 101–5, 111, 116, 124–25; sovereignty concerns and, 26–47, 152–64, 228n133; Supreme Court’s hints and, 24–25, 35, 44, 46–47, 80, 92; treaty law and, 27–47, 113, 118–19; UCMJ’s passage and, 15, 21–26; war declarations of, 125. See also House Armed Services Committee; jurisdictional gap (in U. S. legal codes); Senate Armed Services Committee; Supreme Court (U. S.); specific committees, congressmen , legislation, and subcommittees Connor, Albert, 100, 110 Constitution (U. S.): Bricker amendment and, 27–31, 40–42, 119; extraterritorial jurisdiction and, 29–30, 172n17; Fifth Amendment to, 22, 24, 39, 41, 141; Fourteenth Amendment...


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Subject Headings

  • Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -- Atrocities.
  • War crimes -- History.
  • My Lai Massacre, Vietnam, 1968.
  • Military privileges and immunities -- United States.
  • Retired military personnel -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States.
  • Veterans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States.
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