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Figures 4.1 Language teaching systems in the TAR (1988) 90 5.1 Location of the TAR in China 110 5.2 Location of Nakchu Prefecture in the TAR 111 5.3 Location of Ngari Prefecture in the TAR 111 7.1 Uyghur, Han, and Qazaq (Kazakh) population density at the 168 prefecture level in the XUAR 7.2 Location of Aksu Prefecture in the XUAR 171 8.1 Location of Lancang Lahu Autonomous County in Yunnan Province 188 8.2 The structural-functional ecology of Lahu mountainous schooling 194 8.3 Schema of multicultural integration education 196 12.1 Location of Fushun Prefecture in Liaoning Province 265 Tables 4.1 Language course arrangement in primary, middle, and high schools 91 in the TAR during the late 1980s 4.2 Language of instruction in schools in the TAR (1991) 93 4.3 Teacher distribution in junior middle schools and high schools 95 in the TAR (1988 and 2005) 4.4 School enrollment rates for school-age children and graduation rates 96 in the TAR (%) 4.5 Student distribution in schools in the TAR (2005–2006 academic 98 year) 4.6 Language teaching models in schools in the TAR 100 5.1 Average enrollment rate (%) of TAR prefectures (2000) 113 List of Figures and Tables xii List of Figures and Tables 5.2 Number of counties by prefecture that popularized six-year 114 compulsory education (6YCE) and nine-year compulsory education (9YCE) by 2000 and 2005 6.1 Population distribution (%) of XUAR by prefecture/city and their 133 ethnic structure (2007) 6.2 Student enrollment at middle and primary schools in the XUAR 136 by teaching languages (%), 2009 6.3 Number and type of schools in the XUAR at different levels, 2009 140 6.4 Student performance on the high school entrance exam, Ürümqi 146 (2003–2005) 6.5 Policy-awarded points for minority students in the XUAR 151 6.6 Required scores for admission to college/university in the XUAR, 153 1977–2009 10.1 Uyghur students who observed the Ramadan fast 230 10.2 Uyghur students who did not observe the Ramadan fast 231 10.3 Average meal times during Ramadan 232 13.1 Intellectual styles 282 15.1 List of interviewees’ institutions 325 ...


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