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Glossary Abatis. Structure “formed by cutting down many entire trees, the branches of which are turned towards an enemy, and as much as possible entangled one into another. They are made either before redoubts, or other works, to render the attacks difficult” (Duane 1810:1). “A row of obstructions made up of closely spaced, felled trees with branches trimmed to points and interlaced” (Robinson 1977:197). Backcountry. The interior zone between the coast and the frontier. This was a thinly settled zone of small farms and few towns. The term is used more for the southern colonies than for the mid-Atlantic and northern colonies. Barracks. “Places erected for both officers and men to lodge in; they are built different ways, according to their different situations” (Duane 1810:33). Bastion. “A projection in the enceinte, made up of two faces and two flanks, which enabled the garrison to defend the ground adjacent to the enceinte” (Robinson 1977:197). “A Bastion is a part of the inner inclosure of a fortification , making an angle towards the field, and consists of two faces, two flanks, and an opening towards the center of the place, called the Gorge” (Simes 1768). G.1. Outline of a fourbastion fortification. 256 · Glossary Bateau. The French word for “boat.” A flat-bottomed work boat used for a variety of purposes including troop and supply transport. In eighteenthcentury Canada, bateau was a “term given to a rowboat” with “sharp ends; flat bottom, sheer swept up at ends” (Parry 2000:51). Bayonet. “Kind of triangular dagger, made with a hollow handle, and a shoulder , to fix on the muzzle of a firelock or musket, so that neither the charging nor firing is prevented by its being fixed on the piece” (Duane 1810:52). A long, pointed blade mounted on the end of a musket. The bayonet allowed men to attack and defend themselves when their muskets were unloaded. Berm. “Narrow, level space between the exterior slope and the scarp which functioned to prevent earth of the rampart from sliding into the ditch” (Robinson 1977:197). Blockhouse. “Small fortified building used as a place of retreat or as a flanking device in forts. It was generally constructed from logs, although other materials , such as earth and stone, were commonly used in conjunction with wood” (Robinson 1977:197). Company. In eighteenth-century military organizations, the company was a smaller unit within a battalion. It was usually commanded by a captain and numbered from 25 to 80 men. “A small body of foot, or artillery, the number of which is never fixed, but is generally from 50 to 120, commanded by a captain” (Duane 1810:101). Counterscarp. “Outside of a ditch, opposite to the parapet of the work, behind the ditch” (Simes 1768). “The exterior side of the ditch—the side away from the body of the place” (Robinson 1977:198). Covered way. “Road . . . protected from enemy fire by a parapet” (Robinson 1977:198). Cresset. “Any great light upon a beach, light-house, or watch-tower” (Duane 1810:110). Curtain. “That part of the rampart of a place, which is between the flanks of two [sic] bastions, and is the best defended of any part of the rampart” (Simes 1768). “Section of a bastioned fortification that lies between two bastions ” (Robinson 1977:198). Ditch. In fortification, a ditch is a “large deep trench made round each work” (Duane 1810:176) or a “wide, deep trench around a defensive work, the material from the excavation of which was used to form the ramparts” (Robinson 1977:198). Fosse is another term for “ditch.” Flank. “Section of a bastion lying between the face and the curtain from which the ditch in front of the adjacent curtain and the flank and face of the opposite bastion were defended” (Robinson 1977:198). Glossary · 257 Fort. “Small fortification, made in a pass near a river, or at some distance from a fortified town, to guard the pass, or to prevent the approach of ships, or an enemy by land: they are made of different figures, some made small, and some greater” (Simes 1768). Fortification. “Art of building works for defense or attack which . . . enabled their occupants to resist assaults by superior forces” (Robinson 1977:203). G.2. Cross-sectional view of an entrenched fortification. Fosse. “A work established for the defense of a land or maritime frontier, of an approach to a town, or of a pass or river” (Robinson 1977:203). Also Ditch or Moat. Fraise. “A...


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