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ix List of Figures Chapter 1 1. Illustration of modifications to the Singapore River for the Downtown Line 6 2. The Singapore River in 1970 compared to its landscape today 7 3. EU Court as the cranes carry out demolition works; adjacent to it stands Stamford House which still remains 9 4. Projected extensions of Singapore’s MRT routes 13 Chapter 2 1. Selected heritage landscapes in Singapore 30 2. Sri Mariamman Temple and Jamae Mosque in Chinatown, Singapore 32 3. South Asian foreign workers in Little India, Singapore 34 4. Façade of the Reflections at Bukit Chandu Museum 36 Chapter 3 1. Plans to transform Punggol into a waterfront housing district 53 2. Waterway in Punggol with the Treelodge eco-precinct in the background 54 Chapter 4 1. “2030: More land, more homes, more greenery” 67 2. Picture of Chek Jawa Wetlands showing a couple in the background taking their wedding photograph 71 00 C-Landscapes Prelims.indd 9 7/31/13 11:32:14 AM  List of Figures  3. Campaign badges used by non-governmental groups to educate the public about animal welfare 75 4. A “Forget-Me-Not” booth set up by a few youths to allow the general public to share their memories and wishes for the future development of the railway corridor 77 Chapter 5 1. The Central Area of Singapore 84 2. Expansion of the CBD into Marina Bay 93 3. Marina Bay: A hyper-concentration of image power 94 Chapter 6 1. Number of marriages in Singapore, 2005‒10 113 2. Singapore’s total fertility rate 114 3. Pink Dot Formation at Hong Lim Park, 2009‒11 120 Chapter 7 1. Proportion of elderly residents by age 129 2. Proportion of elderly residents in labour force 130 3. Employment rate of Singapore citizens by age group 132 Chapter 8 1. Boon Lay MRT corridor 150 2. Male migrants along the corridor on a Sunday night 151 Chapter 9 1. News report on Singapore Day which was held at New York in 2007 165 2. Singapore’s connectivity to the diaspora represented by the presence of overseas Singaporean clubs abroad 167 3. Concentration of overseas Singaporeans clubs in China 168 4. Map of Australia 173 5. Map of Canada and the United States 174 00 C-Landscapes Prelims.indd 10 7/31/13 11:32:14 AM List of Figures xi Chapter 10 1. CCTVs being deployed at MRT stations 185 2. Poster at MRT stations urging commuters to report “suspicious” items/people 186 Chapter 11 1. Location of JTC’s industrial estates in Singapore 202 2. Jurong Island 204 3. The Fusionopolis 208 4. The Marina Bay Financial Centre 211 Chapter 12 1. The Esplanade–Theatres on the Bay 223 2. The Little India Art’s Belt, located within two rows of shophouses at Kerbau Road 229 Chapter 13 1. New additions to Singapore’s skyline with iconic projects such as the Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort and the Singapore Flyer 238 2. Tourism receipts and visitor arrivals, 2004–11 244 3. Marina Bay Sands and the Double Helix Bridge 248 Chapter 14 1. Map of Jalan Besar, 1932 262 2. The street of Jalan Besar with Kapok Trees, c.1900 263 3. View of Jalan Besar from a similar location as above, 2010 263 4. Details of the building plan of a brick kiln on Lavender Street, 1899. Brick kilns first appeared in the 1836 survey map by G.D. Coleman 264 5. Map of Jalan Besar (1846) showing vegetable farms, brick kilns and mangrove swamp 264 6. Farm houses, c.1900. The Kapok Trees, farm building, and brickkiln like structure depicted an area likely to be Jalan Besar 265 00 C-Landscapes Prelims.indd 11 7/31/13 11:32:15 AM xii List of Figures xii 7. The Rochor River, c.1900. Factories with chimney and houses on stilts depicted the condition of the waterway back then 265 8. Kampong Boyan, c.1909. Named after the Boyanese, the village was located in the vicinity of the stadium. A street was named Jalan Boyan in memory of the village in the 1920s. It too had disappeared with the development of public housing on King Georges Avenue in the 1980s 266 9. Map of Jalan Besar (1924). In following the property lines of old farms, some early streets like Cuff Road were laid out in a skewed manner 266 10. The street of Jalan Besar showing the development of shophouses in...