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The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921
Vegetarianism has been practiced in the United States since the country's founding, yet the early years of the movement have been woefully misunderstood and understudied. Through the Civil War, the vegetarian movement focused on social and political reform, but by the late nineteenth century, the movement became a path for personal strength and success in a newly individualistic, consumption-driven economy. This development led to greater expansion and acceptance of vegetarianism in mainstream society. So argues Adam D. Shprintzen in his lively history of early American vegetarianism and social reform. From Bible Christians to Grahamites, the American Vegetarian Society to the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Shprintzen explores the diverse proponents of reform-motivated vegetarianism and explains how each of these groups used diet as a response to changing social and political conditions.
By examining the advocates of vegetarianism, including institutions, organizations, activists, and publications, Shprintzen explores how an idea grew into a nationwide community united not only by diet but also by broader goals of social reform.
Vegetarianism seems to be increasing in popularity and acceptance in the United States and Canada, yet, quite surprisingly, the percentage of the population practicing vegetarian diets has not changed dramatically over the past 30 years. People typically view vegetarianism as a personal habit or food choice, even though organizations in North America have been promoting vegetarianism as a movement since the 1850s. This book examines the organizational aspects of vegetarianism and tries to explain why the predominant movement strategies have not successfully attracted more people to adopt a vegetarian identity.Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? is the first book to consider the movement on a broad scale from a social science perspective. While this book takes into account the unique history of North American vegetarianism and the various reasons why people adopt vegetarian diets, it focuses on how movement leaders' beliefs regarding the dynamics of social change contributes to the selection of particular strategies for attracting people to vegetarianism. In the context of this focus, this book highlights several controversies about vegetarianism that have emerged in nutrition and popular media over the past 30 years.
An Ordination of Plant Communities
One of the most important contributions in the field of plant ecology during the twentieth century, this definitive survey established the geographical limits, species compositions, and as much as possible of the environmental relations of the communities composing the vegetation of Wisconsin.
From Philosophy of Nature to Subjectivity in the Feminine
The Vegetative Soul demonstrates that one significant resource for the postmodern critique of subjectivity can be found in German Idealism and Romanticism, specifically in the philosophy of nature. Miller demonstrates that the perception of German Idealism and Romanticism as the culmination of the philosophy of the subject overlooks the nineteenth-century critique of subjectivity with reference to the natural world. This book’s contribution is its articulation of a plant-like subjectivity. The vision of the human being as plant combats the now familiar conception of the modern subject as atomistic, autonomous, and characterized primarily by its separability and freedom from nature. Reading Kant, Goethe, Hölderlin, Hegel, and Nietzsche, Miller juxtaposes two strands of nineteenth-century German thought, comparing the more familiar “animal” understanding of individuation and subjectivity to an alternative “plantlike” one that emphasizes interdependence, vulnerability, and metamorphosis. While providing the necessary historical context, the book also addresses a question that has been very important for recent feminist theory, especially French feminism, namely, the question of the possible configuration of a feminine subject. The idea of the “vegetative” subject takes the traditional alignment of the feminine with nature and the earth and subverts and transforms it into a positive possibility. Although the roots of this alternative conception of subjectivity can be found in Kant’s third Critique and its legacy in nineteenth-century Naturphilosophie, the work of Luce Irigaray brings it to fruition.
Building a European Car Market
This study examines a crucial period in European integration, ending in the early 1990s, when significant progress was made towards the dream of a unified European market. It shows how European automakers were part of these changes and how their influence within the institutions of the European Union (EU) yielded a wide range of policy compromises governing a single European car market. The book begins by reviewing the history of the EU and the logic of regional free trade, and goes on to develop a political explanation for the kinds of changes that actually occurred. The author argues that European automakers enjoyed a privileged place in the political arena, albeit one much transformed by the new institutions of the EU. Therefore, these firms often significantly influenced regional policy outcomes. The argument is applied to policymaking in the important areas of environmental regulation, trade, subsidies, and anti-trust regulation. This work lies at the intersection of business, economics, and political science and is of interest to both experts and non-specialists with an interest in the tremendous economic and political changes brought about by the creation of a united Europe and, more generally, by the worldwide process of regional economic integration. Academics, professionals, businessmen, and leaders in government all have something to learn from the way in which firms and governments combined to build the largest car market in the world. Roland Stephen is Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, North Carolina State University.
Concerned with physical experience, pain, and disability, Veil and Burn illuminates an intense desire to feel through the Other, embrace it, become it, and in the transformation, to understand the suffering body. In poems about animals, artifacts, and monsters, Laurie Clements Lambeth displays a fascination for all bodies while exploring their pain, common fate, alienation, and abilities. Hovering between poem and prose fragment, between the self and fellow creatures, Lambeth celebrates physical sensation, imbuing it with lyric shape, however broken, however imprisoned the shape may be.
Intimate Portrayals of Nuns in Postwar Anglo-American Film
Ingrid Bergman’s engaging screen performance as Sister Mary Benedict in The Bells of St. Mary’s made the film nun a minor star and her character a shining standard of comparison. She represented the religious life as the happy and rewarding choice of a modern woman who had a “complete understanding” of both erotic and spiritual desire. How did this vibrant and mature nun figure come to be viewed as girlish, naive and light-weight? Why have she and the cinematic sisters who followed her in post-war popular film so often been stereotyped or selectively analyzed, so seldom been seen as women and religious, and never been treated as subjects for full-length study?In Veiled Desires, Maureen Sabine explores these questions through an inter-disciplinary study of twelve films in depth and twenty-one in total, primarily from Hollywood, in which the nun features as an ardent lead character over a sixty-year period from the 1945 film The Bells of St. Mary’s to the 2008 film Doubt. She considers how the beautiful, photogenic and charismatic stars who played chaste nuns called attention to desires that the veil concealed and the habit was thought to stifle. In a theologically and psychoanalytically informed argument, she responds to the critics who have pigeonholed the film nun as mainly the obedient daughter and religious handmaiden of a patriarchal church with only a limited capacity for the desires of a modern woman, and the respectful audience who revered her as an icon of spiritual perfection untroubled by female embodiment, sexuality or longing. Sabine offers a new view of the film nun by suggesting how actresses like Ingrid Bergman, Deborah Kerr, Audrey Hepburn, Julie Andrews, Diana Rigg, and Susan Sarandon enact the tensions between the traditional desires of religious life known as agape and the aspirational desires valorized by Audre Lorde as eros. She re-examines films that have been controversial like Black Narcissus (1947), The Nun’s Story (1959) and Agnes of God (1985); have been both belittled and beloved like Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (1957) and The Sound of Music (1965); that have fallen out of favor like The Bells of St. Mary’s or have wooed back a contemporary audience like Dead Man Walking (1995) and Doubt (2008). She provides a framework for a more complex and holistic picture of nuns on screen as both women and religious by showing how, to varying degrees, the films dramatize their Christian call to serve, sacrifice and dedicate themselves to God, and their erotic desire for intimacy, agency, achievement, and fulfillment.
Islamism and the Political Economy of Women's Employment in Iran
The popularity of neoliberal economic policies is based, in part, on the argument that the liberalization of markets promotes growth and increases employment opportunities for women. Although the latest research bears this out, it also presents a grim portrait of the state of women’s employment. Approximately seventy percent of those living on less than a dollar a day are women or girls. In Veiled Employment, the editors seek to examine these stark disparities, focusing on the evolving role of women’s employment in Iran. Based on empirical field research in Iran, the contributors’ essays document the accelerating trend in the size and diversity of women’s employment since the 1990s and explore the impact of various governmental policies on women. The volume analyzes such issues as the effect of global trade on female employment, women’s contribution to the informal work sector, and Iranian female migrant workers in the United States. Rejecting the commonly held view that centers on Islam as the primary cause of women’s status in the Muslim world, the authors emphasize the role of the national and international political economies. Drawing on postcolonial feminist theory, these scholars reveal the ways in which women in Iran have resisted and challenged Islamism, revealing them as agents of social transformation rather than as victims of religious fundamentalism.
The tradition of the veil, which refers to various cloth coverings of the head, face, and body, has been little studied in Africa, where Islam has been present for more than a thousand years. These lively essays raise questions about what is distinctive about veiling in Africa, what religious histories or practices are reflected in particular uses of the veil, and how styles of veils have changed in response to contemporary events. Together, they explore the diversity of meanings and experiences with the veil, revealing it as both an object of Muslim piety and an expression of glamorous fashion.
Comparaison des politiques gouvernementales de soutien
Dans quelle mesure l'État peut-il et doit-il supporter la pratique de veille dans les entreprises et, en particulier, dans les PME? Dans cet ouvrage, l'auteure compare des initiatives (pratiques, outils et impacts) mises en place ou supportées par les gouvernements de l'Allemagne, des États-Unis, de la France, du Japon, du Royaume-Uni, de la Suède, de l'Union européenne et du Québec, pour favoriser la pratique de veille dans les entreprises, notamment dans les PME. Cet ouvrage s'adresse aux étudiants, chercheurs, professionnels et à toute personne s'intéressant à la gestion d'information, à la veille dans les organisations, en particulier les PME, et aux politiques d'information des gouvernements adaptées à la société du savoir.