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Is Public Assistance the Problem?
Obesity costs our society billions of dollars a year in lost productivity and medical expenses, roughly half of which the federal government pays through Medicare and Medicaid. We know obesity plagues the poor more than the non-poor and poor women more than poor men. Poor women make up the majority of adult welfare recipients—coincidence or causal connection? This book investigates the controversial claim by welfare critics that public assistance programs like Food Stamps and the National School Lunch programs contribute to obesity among the poor. The author synthesizes empirical evidence from an array of disciplines—anthropology, economics, epidemiology, medicine, nutrition science, marketing, psychology, public health, sociology, and urban planning--to test this claim and to test whether other causal processes are at work. With a lucid presentation that makes it a model for applying research to questions of social policy, the book lays out the different hypotheses and the possible causal pathways within each. The four central chapters test whether “public assistance causes obesity,” “obesity causes public assistance,” “poverty causes both public assistance and obesity,” and “Factor X causes both.” The factors in the last category that may relate to both public assistance and obesity include stress, disability, and physical abuse.
Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives
Evidence and Directions
The obesity epidemic has a disproportionate impact on communities that are hard-hit by social and economic disadvantages. In Obesity Interventions in Underserved Communities, a diverse group of researchers explores effective models for treating and preventing obesity in such communities. The volume provides overviews of the literature at specific junctures of society and health (e.g., the effectiveness of preschool obesity prevention programs), as well as commentaries that shape our understanding of particular parts of the obesity epidemic and field reports on innovative approaches to combating obesity in racial/ethnic minority and other medically underserved populations in the United States. Authors make specific recommendations to policy makers which are designed to reverse the rising rate of obesity dramatically. The thirty-one literature reviews, commentaries, and field reports collected here address obesity prevention and treatment programs implemented across a spectrum of underserved populations, with particular attention paid to children and adolescents. Aimed at students, clinicians, and community workers in public health and health policy, as well as family medicine and pediatrics, sociology, childhood education, and nutrition—and deeply informed by fieldwork—this book demonstrates the importance of taking a full contextual view, both historical and current, when considering the challenge of reversing upward obesity trends among ethnic minorities, impoverished people, and other underserved populations.
Stories Of Altered Lives
The surprising and unpredictable story of the personal and social after-effects of rapid and dramatic weight loss. Using in-depth, first person accounts of 33 men and women who underwent weight-loss surgery, this book elaborates on the complexities of finally getting what you wished for – the good, the bad, and the totally unexpected.
• Suddenly being treated well by previously dismissive strangers is embraced by some, yet it angers others who question a kindness reserved only for the non-obese.
• Attention from the opposite sex is both flattering and scary, as many have little experience dealing with such advances.
• Marriages and relationships are rocked for better and for worse, as jealousy, insecurity and shifting roles jolt previously stable dynamics.
• All the changes provoke a re-evaluation of who one is and what one values.
This is the story of how dramatic weight loss can result in personal growth, with all of its attendant joys and painful challenges. We live in a culture fascinated by physical make-overs, but no one talks about their psychological consequences. Losing a lot of weight is perhaps the most extreme make-over of all. It leaves people emotionally changed. These changes are the heart of our book. The fascinating narratives contain important lessons for individuals considering or having had the surgery and for those who try to help them. The material will be of personal significance to the lay-person but it is also a guide for health providers in the design of pre- and post-operative support interventions. At a more basic level, it is simply a story of how finally getting what you’ve always wished for can be much more complicated affair than you ever imagined.
Le sel offert au miel
We henceforth would open our eyes, as obscene dancers of moving kidneys, as songs burning with sexual aches, alarm bells in the stomach of emptiness, today constitute our revolution. For Ada Bessomo, Obili, a residential area in Yaounde, capital of Cameroon, is the epitome of bitterness itself. How does one, in such a context, reconcile self esteem, a recollection of better days and love for a country that flexes its muscles against your breath, almost as if to test your patience, to suffocate its very future?
<p class="red">What obituaries tell us about our culture, past and present
"Within the short period of a year she was a bride, a beloved wife and companion, a mother, a corpse," reported The National Intelligencer on the death of Elizabeth Buchanan in 1838.
Such obituaries fascinate us. Few of us realize that, when examined historically, they can reveal not only information about the departed but also much about American culture and about who and what we value. They also offer hints about the way Americans view death.
This book also will fascinate, for it surveys more than 8,000 newspaper obituaries from 1818 to 1930 to show what they reveal about our culture. It shows how, in memorializing individual citizens, obituaries make a public expression of our values. Far from being staid or morbid, these death notices offer a lively look at a changing America. Indeed, obits are little windows through which to view America's cultural history.
In the nineteenth century, they spoke of a person's character, in the twentieth of a person's work and wealth. In the days when women were valued mainly in their relationships with men, their obituaries were about the men in their lives. Then, as now, important friendships make a difference, for sometimes a death has been deemed newsworthy only because of whom the deceased knew.
In 1838 when a 50-year-old Virginian named William P. Custis died "after a long and wasting illness," readers of The Daily National Intelligencer learned about his generous hospitality, his sterling business principles, and his kindness as a neighbor and husband. Custis's obituary not only recorded the fact of his death but also celebrated his virtues.
The newspaper obituary has a commemorative role. It distills the essence of a citizen's life, and it reflects what society values and wants to remember about the deceased. Throughout our history, these published accounts have revealed changing values. They provide a link between public remembrances of individuals and the collective memory of a great American past. In obits of yesteryear men were brave, gallant, vigilant, bold, honest, and dutiful. Women were patient, resigned, obedient, affectionate, amiable, pious, gentle, virtuous, tender, and useful.
Mining newspapers of New York City, New Orleans, Baltimore, Chicago, and San Francisco, along with two early national papers, Niles' Weekly Register and The National Intelligencer, Janice Hume has produced a portrait of America, an entertaining history, and a revealing look at the things Americans have valued.
Janice Hume is an assistant professor at the A. Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications at Kansas State University.
Envisioning the Christian Divine in the Colonial Andes
Concrete Aesthetics in Cuba, Brazil, and Spain, 1868-1968
The Object of the Atlantic is a wide-ranging study of the transition from a concern with sovereignty to a concern with things in Iberian Atlantic literature and art produced between 1868 and 1968. Rachel Price uncovers the surprising ways that concrete aesthetics from Cuba, Brazil, and Spain drew not only on global forms of constructivism but also on a history of empire, slavery, and media technologies from the Atlantic world. Analyzing José Martí's notebooks, Joachim de Sousândrade's poetry, Ramiro de Maeztu's essays on things and on slavery, 1920s Cuban literature on economic restructuring, Ferreira Gullar's theory of the "non-object," and neoconcrete art, Price shows that the turn to objects--and from these to new media networks--was rooted in the very philosophies of history that helped form the Atlantic world itself.
Le marché, la social-démocratie ou l'économie sociale ?
Le chômage et la précarité d'emploi sont des problèmes persistants dans notre société et cet ouvrage traite, entre autres, des diverses voies qui s'ouvrent pour tenter de juguler le phénomène. Peut-on améliorer la situation en aménageant ou en réduisant le temps de travail? Quel est le rôle de l'économie sociale? Quel est l'impact de la fiscalité, de la mondialisation et des politiques d'inflation zéro sur l'emploi? Comment donner voix au chapitre aux travailleurs?
In the past twenty years, the number of educational tests with high-stakes consequences—such as promotion to the next grade level or graduating from high school—has increased. At the same time, the difficulty of the tests has also increased. In Texas, a Latina state legislator introduced and lobbied for a bill that would take such factors as teacher recommendations, portfolios of student work, and grades into account for the students—usually students of color—who failed such tests. The bill was defeated.
Using several types of ethnographic study (personal interviews, observations of the Legislature in action, news broadcasts, public documents from the Legislature and Texas Education Agency), Amanda Walker Johnson observed the struggle for the bill’s passage. Through recounting this experience, Objectifying Measures explores the relationship between the cultural production of scientific knowledge (of statistics in particular) and the often intuitive resistance to objectification of those adversely affected by the power of policies underwritten as "scientific."