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Sociale en demografische kwesties in de Lage Landen tijdens het interbellum
De periode tussen de Eerste en de Tweede Wereldoorlog heeft in de Lage Landen tot nog toe weinig aandacht gekregen. Het leek een niemandsperiode, een verminkt tijdsgewricht, dat letterlijk en figuurlijk weggedrukt werd door de oorlogen. Ten onrechte, zo blijkt uit De levenskracht der bevolking. Het interbellum was een dynamisch sociaal laboratorium en kende intense maatschappelijke spanningen. De moderniteit was op kruissnelheid gekomen en riep tegengestelde reacties op, gaande van radicale omarming tot reactionaire verwerping. Politieke democratisering botste op antidemocratische reacties en nieuwerwetse tendensen in het huwelijks- en gezinsleven lokten antimoderne kritiek uit. In de westerse wereld woedde een debat over ‘de bevolkingskwestie'. Een aantal demografische evoluties werd in brede kringen gelezen als een teken dat het met de westerse cultuur de verkeerde kant uitging en dat een aantal waarden en normen dreigde verloren te gaan. In dit boek nemen Nederlandse en Vlaamse historici, sociologen, economen en demografen een reeks thema's onder de loep rond ‘volk', huwelijk en gezin, leven en dood tijdens het interbellum. Ze doen dit vanuit actuele invalshoeken en met verrassende bronnen en originele methoden. De belangrijkste thema's uit die tijd staan ook vandaag (opnieuw) op de maatschappelijke agenda: lage vruchtbaarheid, vergrijzing en internationale migratie.
Southwestern Statehood and Mexican Immigration
Networks, Markets, and Regulation in Los Angeles
As international travel became cheaper and national economies grew more connected over the past thirty years, millions of people from the Third World emigrated to richer countries. A tenth of the population of Mexico relocated to the United States between 1980 and 2000. Globalization theorists claimed that reception cities could do nothing about this trend, since nations make immigration policy, not cities. In Deflecting Immigration, sociologist Ivan Light shows how Los Angeles reduced the sustained, high-volume influx of poor Latinos who settled there by deflecting a portion of the migration to other cities in the United States. In this manner, Los Angeles tamed globalization’s local impact, and helped to nationalize what had been a regional immigration issue. Los Angeles deflected immigration elsewhere in two ways. First, the protracted network-driven settlement of Mexicans naturally drove up rents in Mexican neighborhoods while reducing immigrants’ wages, rendering Los Angeles a less attractive place to settle. Second, as migration outstripped the city’s capacity to absorb newcomers, Los Angeles gradually became poverty-intolerant. By enforcing existing industrial, occupational, and housing ordinances, Los Angeles shut down some unwanted sweatshops and reduced slums. Their loss reduced the metropolitan region’s accessibility to poor immigrants without reducing its attractiveness to wealthier immigrants. Additionally, ordinances mandating that homes be built on minimum-sized plots of land with attached garages made home ownership in L.A.’s suburbs unaffordable for poor immigrants and prevented low-cost rental housing from being built. Local rules concerning home occupancy and yard maintenance also prevented poor immigrants from crowding together to share housing costs. Unable to find affordable housing or low-wage jobs, approximately one million Latinos were deflected from Los Angeles between 1980 and 2000. The realities of a new global economy are still unfolding, with uncertain consequences for the future of advanced societies, but mass migration from the Third World is unlikely to stop in the next generation. Deflecting Immigration offers a shrewd analysis of how America’s largest immigrant destination independently managed the challenges posed by millions of poor immigrants and, in the process, helped focus attention on immigration as an issue of national importance.
Jews in Bohemia between the Enlightenment and the Soah
This book elucidates what made the Jews in Bohemia (the historic name for the western part of the Czech lands) forerunners of the demographic transition. It examines demographic data from the mid-18th to the mid-20th century, and looks for what made Bohemian Jews’ data distinct from the trends observed in the gentile community and among Jews elsewhere. The unique demographic behavior started when Jews were still living in segregated ghettos. From the 18th century onwards, Bohemian Jews developed patterns of decreasing mortality and fertility that were not observed among the gentile majority.
Vol. 37, no. 4 (2000) - vol. 47 (2010)
Demography is a scientific journal, published by the Population Association of America, a non-profit professional organization of demographers. Demography includes research conducted in several disciplines, including the social sciences, geography, history, biology, statistics, business, epidemiology and public health.
Social Legislation and Population Policy in Bulgaria, 1918–1944
The monograph investigates the origins of state policy toward population and the family in Bulgaria. Reconstructs the evolution of state legislation in the field of social policy toward the family between the two World Wars, colored by concerns about the national good and demographic considerations. It sets the laws regarding family welfare in their framework of a distinctively cultural, historical and political discourse to follow the motives behind the legislative initiatives.
Convergence and Divergence in Making Foreign Policy
Coined in the third century B.C., the term diaspora has evolved into a buzzword used to describe the migrations of groups as diverse as ethnic populations, religious communities, and even engineers working abroad. This concise book provides a critical introduction to the concept of diaspora, bringing a fresh, synthetic perspective to virtually all aspects of this topic. Stéphane Dufoix incorporates a wealth of case studies—about the Jewish, Armenian, African, Chinese, Greek, and Indian experiences— to illustrate key concepts, give a clear overview on current thinking, and reassess the value of the term for us today.
Race and the Incorporation of Black, White, and Arab-Origin Africans in the United States
Immigration and the Color Line in Twenty-First Century America
African Americans grappled with Jim Crow segregation until it was legally overturned in the 1960s. In subsequent decades, the country witnessed a new wave of immigration from Asia and Latin America—forever changing the face of American society and making it more racially diverse than ever before. In The Diversity Paradox, authors Jennifer Lee and Frank Bean take these two poles of American collective identity—the legacy of slavery and immigration—and ask if today’s immigrants are destined to become racialized minorities akin to African Americans or if their incorporation into U.S. society will more closely resemble that of their European predecessors. They also tackle the vexing question of whether America’s new racial diversity is helping to erode the tenacious black/white color line. The Diversity Paradox uses population-based analyses and in-depth interviews to examine patterns of intermarriage and multiracial identification among Asians, Latinos, and African Americans. Lee and Bean analyze where the color line—and the economic and social advantage it demarcates—is drawn today and on what side these new arrivals fall. They show that Asians and Latinos with mixed ancestry are not constrained by strict racial categories. Racial status often shifts according to situation. Individuals can choose to identify along ethnic lines or as white, and their decisions are rarely questioned by outsiders or institutions. These groups also intermarry at higher rates, which is viewed as part of the process of becoming “American” and a form of upward social mobility. African Americans, in contrast, intermarry at significantly lower rates than Asians and Latinos. Further, multiracial blacks often choose not to identify as such and are typically perceived as being black only—underscoring the stigma attached to being African American and the entrenchment of the “one-drop” rule. Asians and Latinos are successfully disengaging their national origins from the concept of race—like European immigrants before them—and these patterns are most evident in racially diverse parts of the country. For the first time in 2000, the U.S. Census enabled multiracial Americans to identify themselves as belonging to more than one race. Eight years later, multiracial Barack Obama was elected as the 44th President of the United States. For many, these events give credibility to the claim that the death knell has been sounded for institutionalized racial exclusion. The Diversity Paradox is an extensive and eloquent examination of how contemporary immigration and the country’s new diversity are redefining the boundaries of race. The book also lays bare the powerful reality that as the old black/white color line fades a new one may well be emerging—with many African Americans still on the other side.