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A History of the Death Penalty in the United States
Until the early twentieth century, printed invitations to executions issued by lawmen were a vital part of the ritual of death concluding a criminal proceeding in the United States. In this study, Gordon Morris Bakken invites readers to an understanding of the death penalty in America with a collection of essays that trace the history and politics of this highly charged moral, legal, and cultural issue. Bakken has solicited essays from historians, political scientists, and lawyers to ensure a broad treatment of the evolution of American cultural attitudes about crime and capital punishment.
Twenty Years of the Prison Creative Arts Project
Prisons are an invisible, but dominant, part of American society: the United States incarcerates more people than any other nation in the world, with 25 percent of the world's prisoners currently held within its borders. In Michigan, the number of prisoners rose from 3,000 in 1970 to more than 50,000 by 2008, a shift that Buzz Alexander witnessed firsthand when he came to teach at the University of Michigan. Is William Martinez Not Our Brother? describes the University of Michigan's Prison Creative Arts Project (PCAP), a pioneering program founded in 1990 that works with incarcerated youth and adults in Michigan juvenile facilities and prisons. Alexander recounts the genesis and evolution of this radically pragmatic and original system that begins with university courses for credit, then offers students a university-based nonprofit organization through which they may continue and deepen their practice, and finally gives them a national network as well as connections with the national movement resisting mass incarceration in this country, and with social careers in general. By giving incarcerated individuals an opportunity to participate in the arts, PCAP enables them to withstand and often overcome the conditions and culture of prison, the policies of an incarcerating state, and the consequences of mass incarceration. The book is also a deeply personal account of Alexander's long commitment to confronting the continually rising numbers of prisoners in America, his dedication as an educator, and his attempts to provide a way to reach out on a practical and emotional level to inmates. The model he describes applies to both public scholarship and everyday politics and will inspire readers in all fields. Buzz Alexander is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of English Language and Literature, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, at the University of Michigan and was Carnegie National Professor of the Year in 2005.
Bad Cops, Police Misconduct, and the New York City Police Department
Drugs, bribes, falsifying evidence, unjustified force and kickbacks:
there are many opportunities for cops to act like criminals. Jammed
Up is the definitive study of the nature and causes of police misconduct.
While police departments are notoriously protective of
their own—especially personnel and disciplinary information—Michael
White and Robert Kane gained unprecedented, complete
access to the confidential files of NYPD officers who committed
serious offenses, examining the cases of more than 1,500 NYPD
officers over a twenty year period that includes a fairly complete
cycle of scandal and reform, in the largest, most visible police department
in the United States. They explore both the factors that
predict officer misconduct, and the police department’s responses
to that misconduct, providing a comprehensive framework for understanding
the issues. The conclusions they draw are important
not just for what they can tell us about the NYPD but for how we
are to understand the very nature of police misconduct.
actual misconduct cases
»» An off-duty officer driving his private vehicle stops at a
convenience store on Long Island, after having just
worked a 10 hour shift in Brooklyn, to steal a six pack of
beer at gun point. Is this police misconduct?
»» A police officer is disciplined no less than six times in
three years for failing to comply with administrative standards
and is finally dismissed from employment for losing
his NYPD shield (badge). Is this police misconduct?
»» An officer was fired for abusing his sick time, but then
further investigation showed that the officer was found
not guilty in a criminal trial during which he was accused
of using his position as a police officer to protect drug
and prostitution enterprises. Which is the example of
Prosecuting Adolescents in Adult and Juvenile Courts
2007 Ruth Shonle Cavan Young Scholar Award presented by the American Society of Criminology
2007 American Society of Criminology Michael J. Hindelang Award for the Most Outstanding Contribution to Research in Criminology
By comparing how adolescents are prosecuted and punished in juvenile and criminal (adult) courts, Aaron Kupchik finds that prosecuting adolescents in criminal court does not fit with our cultural understandings of youthfulness. As a result, adolescents who are transferred to criminal courts are still judged as juveniles. Ultimately, Kupchik makes a compelling argument for the suitability of juvenile courts in treating adolescents. Judging Juveniles suggests that justice would be better served if adolescents were handled by the system designed to address their special needs.
Trials and Triumphs of DNA Evidence
George "Woody" Clarke has been renowned for years in legal circles and among the news media because of his expertise in DNA evidence. In this memoir, Clarke chronicles his experiences in some of the most disturbing and notorious sexual assault and murder court cases in California. He charts the beginnings of DNA testing in police investigations and the fight for its acceptance by courts and juries.
Inside the Interrogation Room
Juveniles possess less maturity, intelligence, and competence than adults, heightening their vulnerability in the justice system. For this reason, states try juveniles in separate courts and use different sentencing standards than for adults. Yet, when police bring kids in for questioning, they use the same interrogation tactics they use for adults, including trickery, deception, and lying to elicit confessions or to produce incriminating evidence against the defendants. In Kids, Cops, and Confessions, Barry Feld offers the first report of what actually happens when police question juveniles. Drawing on remarkable data, Feld analyzes interrogation tapes and transcripts, police reports, juvenile court filings and sentences, and probation and sentencing reports, describing in rich detail what actually happens in the interrogation room. Contrasting routine interrogation and false confessions enables police, lawyers, and judges to identify interrogations that require enhanced scrutiny, to adopt policies to protect citizens, and to assure reliability and integrity of the justice system. Feld has produced an invaluable look at how the justice system really works.
Réflexions théoriques et explorations empiriques
Douze ans après la création de la Chaire de recherche du Canada en traditions juridiques et rationalité pénale, ce livre rédigé par des chercheurs associés à cette chaire se veut un hommage à son titulaire, le professeur Alvaro Pires. L’ouvrage fait état des plus récentes recherches empiriques et réflexions théoriques liées au concept de « rationalité pénale moderne » (RPM). La RPM fournit une grille d’analyse pour l’observation et la description du droit criminel moderne et permet de soulever des questions pertinentes sur la criminologie et la sociologie du droit criminel. Les points abordés touchent notamment au renouvellement du débat sur la torture, à l’influence de l’opinion publique sur le rendement de la justice, à la reconnaissance des droits de l’homme dans le droit criminel et à la représentation des juges et des politiciens dans les processus de détermination des peines et d’élaboration du droit pénal. Au-delà des spécificités de chacune des contributions, un thème général ressort de l’ensemble de l’ouvrage : celui de la transformation du droit criminel moderne. Ainsi, à l’aube du XXIe siècle et dans le cadre des sociétés dites « modernes », l’évolution d’un système social – qui (sur)valorise l’idéal de justice à travers des valeurs négatives telles que l’enfermement, la distribution de la souffrance et la production de l’exclusion sociale – demeure au centre de la réflexion. L’ouvrage cerne les obstacles cognitifs qui nuisent à l’évolution du droit criminel et à l’émergence d’idées innovantes susceptibles de soutenir et de motiver des pratiques alternatives.
The Rise and Fall of Community Policing in New York Public Housing