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The Natural Origins of Girls' Organizations in America
In the early years of the twentieth century, Americans began to recognize adolescence as a developmental phase distinct from both childhood and adulthood. This awareness, however, came fraught with anxiety about the debilitating effects of modern life on adolescents of both sexes. For boys, competitive sports as well as "primitive" outdoor activities offered by fledging organizations such as the Boy Scouts would enable them to combat the effeminacy of an overly civilized society. But for girls, the remedy wasn't quite so clear. Surprisingly, the "girl problem"?a crisis caused by the transition from a sheltered, family-centered Victorian childhood to modern adolescence where self-control and a strong democratic spirit were required of reliable citizens?was also solved by way of traditionally masculine, adventurous, outdoor activities, as practiced by the Girl Scouts, the Camp Fire Girls, and many other similar organizations. Susan A. Miller explores these girls' organizations that sprung up in the first half of the twentieth century from a socio-historical perspective, showing how the notions of uniform identity, civic duty, "primitive domesticity," and fitness shaped the formation of the modern girl.
The History of Childhood in Global Context
Growing Up combines two flourishing historical fields-the history of childhood and world history-to address the question of how much of childhood is natural and how much is historically determined. The first lecture gauges the impact of the development of agriculture, civilization, and religion upon the premodern experience of childhood. The second lecture contrasts modern perspectives on childhood with more traditional ones before investigating how and why modern perspectives developed and spread. These lectures clearly demonstrate that the transformation of childhood is both recent and sweeping.
Interviews and Analysis
While many researchers focus on the educational development of deaf children, precious little time has been devoted to studying the child’s social development and “self-concept.” Conducting interviews with seven deaf children between the ages of 7 and 10, author Martha Sheridan offers a fresh look at the private thoughts and feelings of deaf children in Inner Lives of Deaf Children: Interviews and Analysis. “What does it mean to be a child who is deaf or hard of hearing?” Sheridan asks in the beginning of her study. She turns to Danny, Angie, Joe, Alex, Lisa, Mary, and Pat for the answer. The author selected the children based on their unique cultural background and conversed with each child in his or her preferred method of communication. Her procedure remained consistent with each: in addition to standard questions, Sheridan asked each child to draw a picture based on their life and then tell a story about it; next, she showed them pictures clipped from a magazine and asked them to describe what they saw. The results proved to be as varied as they are engaging. Angie, an adopted, profoundly deaf, ten-year-old girl who communicates in Signed English, expressed a desire to attend a hearing college when she grows up, while also stating she hopes her own children will be deaf. Joe, an African-American, ten-year-old, hard-of-hearing boy, drew pictures of deaf people who are teased in public school, reflecting his own difficult experiences. Sheridan draws upon her tenure as a social worker as well as her own experience as a deaf child growing up in a hearing family in analyzing her study's results. “From listening to the voices of these children we learn that they do not always see themselves, their lifeworlds, and their experiences as researchers have traditionally described them,” she writes. “These children have strengths, they have positive experiences, and they enjoy positive relationships.” With evident devotion to her subjects, Sheridan renders Inner Lives of Deaf Children an enlightening read for parents and scholars alike.
Vol. 1 (2009) through current issue
Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures is an interdisciplinary, refereed academic journal whose mandate is to publish research on, and to provide a forum for discussion about, cultural productions for, by, and about young people. Our scope is international; while we have a special interest in Canada, we welcome submissions concerning all areas and cultures. We are especially interested in the cultural functions and representations of âthe child.â This can include childrenâs and young adult literature and media; young peopleâs material culture, including toys; digital culture and young people; historical and contemporary constructions, functions, and roles of âthe childâ and adolescents; and literature, art, and films by children and young adults. We welcome articles in both English and French.
Vol. 1 (2008) through current issue
An international, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth explores the development of childhood and youth cultures and the experiences of young people across diverse times and places. JHCY embraces a wide range of historical methodologies as well as scholarship in other disciplines that share a historical focus. The journal publishes original articles based on empirical research and essays that place contemporary issues of childhood and youth in a historical context. Each issue also includes an "object lesson" on the material culture of childhood, contemporary policy pieces, and relevant book reviews. JHCY is the official journal of the Society for the History of Children and Youth.
L’agression sexuelle est un fléau social sans frontières qui touchera une fille sur cinq et un garçon sur dix avant qu’ils aient atteint 18 ans. Les caractéristiques de l’agression sexuelle, celles de l’enfant et de l’environnement dans lequel il évolue sont autant de facteurs susceptibles de moduler l’incidence de cette agression sexuelle à court et à long terme.Dans cet ouvrage, des chercheurs œuvrant au sein du Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur les problèmes conjugaux et les agressions sexuelles (CRIPCAS), de l’Équipe Violence Sexuelle et Santé (EVISSA) et de la Chaire interuniversitaire Marie-Vincent, ainsi que des cliniciens provenant de différentes disciplines telles que la psychologie, la médecine, la psychoéducation, la sexologie, cernent l’ensemble des facteurs susceptibles d’influencer le vécu de l’enfant victime d’agression sexuelle. À partir de synthèses des connaissances issues des recherches ou de l’expérience clinique, des pistes d’intervention sont proposées pour la prévention, l’évaluation et l’intervention auprès des jeunes victimes d’agression sexuelle et leur famille.
Dans ce deuxième tome de L’agression sexuelle envers les enfants, les auteurs approfondissent les conséquences associées à l’agression sexuelle, puis abordent des thèmes émergents dans ce domaine de recherche et d’intervention, comme le concept de sécurité d’attachement ou encore le phénomène de cycle intergénérationnel de la victimisation sexuelle. Cette synthèse de connaissances, issues des travaux de chercheurs œuvrant au sein du Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur les problèmes conjugaux et les agressions sexuelles (CRIPCAS), de l’Équipe Violence sexuelle et santé (EVISSA) et de la Chaire interuniversitaire Marie-Vincent, ainsi que de cliniciens provenant de différentes disciplines telles que la psychologie, la médecine, la psychoéducation et la sexologie, propose des pistes d’intervention pour aider les victimes d’agression sexuelle et de nouvelles avenues de recherche.
Shaping Racial Identities and Ideas in African American Childhoods
In an American society both increasingly diverse and increasingly segregated, the signals children receive about race are more confusing than ever. In this context, how do children negotiate and make meaning of multiple and conflicting messages to develop their own ideas about race? Learning Race, Learning Place engages this question using in-depth interviews with an economically diverse group of African American children and their mothers. Through these rich narratives, Erin N. Winkler seeks to reorient the way we look at how children develop their ideas about race through the introduction of a new framework—comprehensive racial learning—that shows the importance of considering this process from children’s points of view and listening to their interpretations of their experiences, which are often quite different from what the adults around them expect or intend. At the children’s prompting, Winkler examines the roles of multiple actors and influences, including gender, skin tone, colorblind rhetoric, peers, family, media, school, and, especially, place. She brings to the fore the complex and understudied power of place, positing that while children’s racial identities and experiences are shaped by a national construction of race, they are also specific to a particular place that exerts both direct and indirect influence on their racial identities and ideas.
Masculinity, Place, and the Gender Gap in Education
An avalanche of recent newspapers, weekly newsmagazines, scholarly journals, and academic books has helped to spark a heated debate by publishing warnings of a “boy crisis” in which male students at all academic levels have begun falling behind their female peers. In Learning the Hard Way, Edward W. Morris explores and analyzes detailed ethnographic data on this purported gender gap between boys and girls in educational achievement at two low-income high schools—one rural and predominantly white, the other urban and mostly African American. Crucial questions arose from his study of gender at these two schools. Why did boys tend to show less interest in and more defiance toward school? Why did girls significantly outperform boys at both schools? Why did people at the schools still describe boys as especially “smart”?
Morris examines these questions and, in the process, illuminates connections of gender to race, class, and place. This book is not simply about the educational troubles of boys, but the troubled and complex experience of gender in school. It reveals how particular race, class, and geographical experiences shape masculinity and femininity in ways that affect academic performance. His findings add a new perspective to the “gender gap” in achievement.