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Mediaevalia Lovaniensia - Series 1/Studia

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Aristotle's Problemata in Different Times and Tongues

Pieter De Leemans; Michèle Goyens (eds)

The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle's Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical, scientific or everyday topics. This text is one of the most neglected Aristotelian treatises, because of its heterogeneous character and its so-called 'inauthenticity'. It has been the subject of a complex transmission. In ancient times, Aristotle's text has been augmented and adapted, while still other authors composed similar collections of Problemata. In the Middle Ages, Problemata collections have been translated into Arabic, Latin, and Middle French, each translation being characterized by its own particularities. The Latin translation lead to an extremely influential commentary by the Italian physician Peter of Abano, whereas Evrart de Conty, who made the Middle French translation, added himself a commentary to each discussed problem, often using Peter of Abano's text as source. Also in the Renaissance, the Problemata appealed to the interest of physicians and philosophers. In their contributions to this book, the authors analyse this complex web of relations between source-texts, translations, and commentaries, in different times and tongues.

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Between Text and Tradition

Pietro d’Abano and the Reception of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Problemata Physica in the Middle Ages

Pieter De Leemans, Maarten J.F.M. Hoenen (eds)

New insights into Pietro d’Abano’s unique approach to translations. The commentary of the Italian physician and philosopher Pietro d’Abano on Bartholomew of Messina’s Latin translation of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Problemata Physica, published in 1310, constitutes an important historical source. In a section of the corpus Aristotelicum that was not part of the standard curriculum at the medieval university, the commentary of Pietro d’Abano investigates the complex relationship between text, translation, and commentary. The eight articles in this volume provide valuable insights into the manner in which Pietro d’Abano deals with the problems of a translated text. They emphasize the idiosyncrasy of his approach in comparison to his contemporaries and successors, the particularities of his commentary in light of the habitual exegetical practices applied in the teaching of curricular texts, as well as the influence of philosophical traditions outside the strict framework of the medieval arts faculty.

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Ecclesia in medio nationis

Reflections on the Study of Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages - Réflexions sur l'étude du monachismeau moyen âge central

Steven Vanderputten; Brigitte Meijns (eds)

The role of monastic institutions in society during the Central Middle Ages has been much debated in medieval studies. Some scholars saw monasticism as the principal motivator of economic, social, intellectual and ‘spiritual' progress in human society, while others regarded monastic ideology as fundamentally anti-social and oriented towards itself. These debates seem to have lost some of their relevance to the present-day scholar. Today monasticism is studied as a social entity which needed interactions with the outside world, not only to subsist in a physical sense, but also to give a clear sense of purpose to its members. Drawing on recent trends in historical scholarship, this volume seeks to identify some of the major questions that will dominate research into monasticism in the years to come. Contributions deal with the evolution of monasticism itself, its links with aristocracy, the economic relations of religious communities and their physical and ideological boundaries, and the representation of the outside world in monastic manuscripts.

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From Eckhart to Ruusbroec

A Critical Inheritance of Mystical Themes in the Fourteenth Century

Satoshi Kikuchi

The mystical relationship between Meister Eckhart and Jan van Ruusbroec. In this thorough textual, historical, and doctrinal study the author seeks to clarify the relationship between two prominent mystics of the fourteenth century: Meister Eckhart, the German Dominican, and Jan van Ruusbroec, the Brabantine Augustinian. Special attention is paid to Ruusbroec’s criticism of mystical tenets circulating in Brabant at that time which were both textually and doctrinally related to Eckhart’s condemned propositions in the papal bull In agro dominico. This fact implies that Ruusbroec was confronted with the impact of the condemnation of Eckhart’s doctrines on the people in Brabant. Situating Ruusbroec’s life and works within the aftermath of Eckhart’s arrival, the author elucidates Ruusbroec’s position regarding the relevant mystical themes in the later Middle Ages, and follows a process of critical inheritance of mystical tradition from Eckhart to Ruusbroec.

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Les dialogues platoniciens chez Plutarque

Stratégies et méthodes exégétiques

Xavier Brouillette, Angelo Giavatto (eds)

The issue of Plutarch's Platonism is a crucial topic for both specialists in Plutarch and for those interested in Plato.While previous publications on this issue focus on the faithfulness of Plutarch to Platonic philosophy and how Platonic theses are presented in the Middle Platonism, this volume attempts, through a multifaceted approach, to focus on how and why Plutarch uses the words of Plato in the Moralia.

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"Lors est ce jour grant joie nee"

Essais de langue et de littérature françaises du moyen âge

Michèle Goyens ; Werner Verbeke (eds)

Ce volume regroupe huit contributions consacrées à la langue et la littérature françaises du moyen âge. Elles sont le reflet d’une journée d’étude organisée en l’honneur du professeur émérite Willy Van Hoecke, dont la passion pour la linguistique diachronique et la littérature médiévale françaises lui a fait développer des techniques d’édition critique à partir des oeuvres de Baudouin de Condé, technique qu’il appliquera aussi à l’édition de la Rectorique de Marc Tulles Cyceron, une traduction de deux traités de rhétorique latins réalisée par Jean d’Antioche à la fin du 13e siècle. Il mettra aussi au point une méthode pour l’étude empirique de l’évolution de la langue par le biais de traductions. Les études rassemblées en son honneur portent sur divers sujets: la phraséologie historique, des auteurs médiévaux, certaines figures littéraires, des destinataires de la littérature médiévale, des types particuliers de textes littéraires, et certains liens entre la littérature en moyen néerlandais et celle de l’ancien français.

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Medieval Manuscripts in Transition

Tradition and Creative Recycling

Geert Claassens ; Werner Verbeke (eds)

Manuscripts constitute the source material par excellence for diverse academic disciplines. Art historians, philologists, historians, theologians, philosophers, book historians and even jurists encounter one another around the codex. The fact that such an encounter can be extremely fertile was demonstrated, during an international congress in Brussels on November 5-9, 2002. A record of the discussions can be found in this volume of the Mediaevalia Lovaniensia. The editors selected those lectures that focused on the historical, literary-historical, philosophical and theological aspects of the congress theme as opposed to those with an explicit art-historical perspective. The common thread, however, is always the codicological aspect: what can the study of manuscripts contribute to the literary-historical interpretation or the insight into the functioning of a text in its original context. The various contributions testify to a fearless and unrestrained interdisciplinary approach to the material. The subjects broached cover a broad domain: from the development of classical themes to the transmission of lyrical models, from visual material giving evidence of the reception of literary texts to the artes-literature used as a vehicle for a love story.

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Paganism in the Middle Ages

Threat and Fascination

Carlos Steel; John Marenbon; Werner Verbeke (eds)

In this volume the persistence, resurgence, threat, fascination, and repression of various forms of pagan culture are studied in an interdisciplinary perspective from late antiquity to the emergent Renaissance. Contributions deal with the survival of pagan beliefs and practices, as well as with the Christianization of pagan rural populations or with the different strategies of oppression of pagan beliefs. The authors examine problems raised by the encounter with pagan cultures outside the Muslim world and show how philosophers contrived to ‘save' the great philosophers and poets from ancient culture notwithstanding their paganism. The contributors also study the fascination of classic ‘pagan' culture among friars during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the imitation of pagan models of virtue and mythology in Renaissance poetry.

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Science Translated

Latin and Vernacular Translations of Scientific Treatises in Medieval Europe

Michèle Goyens, Pieter De Leemans, An Smets (eds)

Medieval translators played an important role in the development and evolution of a scientific lexicon. At a time when most scholars deferred to authority, the translations of canonical texts assumed great importance. Moreover, translation occurred at two levels in the Middle Ages. First, Greek or Arabic texts were translated into the learned language, Latin. Second, Latin texts became source-texts themselves, to be translated into the vernaculars as their importance across Europe started to increase. The situation of the respective translators at these two levels was fundamentally different: whereas the former could rely on a long tradition of scientific discourse, the latter had the enormous responsibility of actually developing a scientific vocabulary. The contributions in the present volume investigate both levels, greatly illuminating the emergence of the scientific terminology and concepts that became so fundamental in early modern intellectual discourse. The scientific disciplines covered in the book include, among others, medicine, biology, astronomy, and physics.

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Symbolic Communication in Late Medieval Towns

Jacoba Van Leeuwen (ed.)

This volume addresses symbolic forms of communication in the late medieval towns of the Low Countries, northern France and the Swiss Confederation. In context of State centralisation, the political autonomy of these towns was threatened by tensions with higher levels of power. Within this conflict both rulers and towns employed symbolic means of communication to legitimise their power position. The intensive use of rituals like theatreplays and gift-exchange demonstrates that symbolic forms of communication were no routine jobs. Towns and rulers actively appropriated and reread older traditions in order to adapt them to the new settings in which they were employed. Tradition and innovation had to be balanced well, in order for the audience to understand the ritual correctly. However, the organiser could never control the new layers of meaning the audience would attach to the event. This volume seeks to explore how new layers of meaning were attached to well-known traditions, how these rituals were perceived and when the recognizability of a ritual was damaged by such appropriations. Both public encounters between rulers and towns are studied, as well as the use of ritual to express the political and religious relations between the various social groups within the towns.

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