Indiana University Press

Philanthropic and Nonprofit Studies

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Philanthropic and Nonprofit Studies

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Almost Worthy

The Poor, Paupers, and the Science of Charity in America, 1877-1917

Brent Ruswick

In the 1880s, social reform leaders warned that the "unworthy" poor were taking charitable relief intended for the truly deserving. Armed with statistics and confused notions of evolution, these "scientific charity" reformers founded organizations intent on limiting access to relief by the most morally, biologically, and economically unfit. Brent Ruswick examines a prominent national organization for scientific social reform and poor relief in Indianapolis in order to understand how these new theories of poverty gave birth to new programs to assist the poor.

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Buying Respectability

Philanthropy and Urban Society in Transnational Perspective, 1840s to 1930s

Thomas Adam

In 19th-century Leipzig, Toronto, New York, and Boston, a newly emergent group of industrialists and entrepreneurs entered into competition with older established elite groups for social recognition as well as cultural and political leadership. The competition was played out on the field of philanthropy, with the North American community gathering ideas from Europe about the establishment of cultural and public institutions. For example, to secure financing for their new museum, the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art organized its membership and fundraising on the model of German art museums. The process of cultural borrowing and intercultural transfer shaped urban landscapes with the building of new libraries, museums, and social housing projects. An important contribution to the relatively new field of transnational history, this book establishes philanthropy as a prime example of the conversion of economic resources into social and cultural capital.

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A Dictionary of Nonprofit Terms and Concepts

David Horton Smith, Robert A. Stebbins, and Michael A. Dover

This reference work defines more than 1,200 terms and concepts that have been found useful in past research and theory on the nonprofit sector. The entries reflect the importance of associations, citizen participation, philanthropy, voluntary action, nonprofit management, volunteer administration, leisure, and political activities of nonprofits. They also reflect a concern for the wider range of useful general concepts in theory and research that bear on the nonprofit sector and its manifestations in the United States and elsewhere. This dictionary supplies some of the necessary foundational work on the road toward a general theory of the nonprofit sector.

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The Doc and the Duchess

The Life and Legacy of George H. A. Clowes

Foreword by John Lechleiter. Alexander W. Clowes, M.D.

George Henry Alexander Clowes was a pivotal figure in the development of the insulin program at the Eli Lilly Company. Through his leadership, scientists and clinicians at Lilly and the University of Toronto created a unique, international team to develop and purify insulin and take the production of this life-saving agent to an industrial scale. This biography, written by his grandson, presents his scientific achievements, and also takes note of his social and philanthropic contributions, which he shared with his wife, Edith. It tells the story of Clowes from his childhood in late Victorian England to his death at Woods Hole on Cape Cod in 1958. Educated in England and Germany, Clowes came to America to join a startup laboratory in Buffalo, where he conducted basic research on cancer and applied research on other disease-related problems. Assuming the position of head of research at Lilly, Clowes was at the center of one of the great discoveries that changed the course of medical history and offered new life to millions of individuals with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Clowes was also instrumental in the development of other commercial pharmaceutical advances. Devoted to a number of philanthropic causes, Clowes and Edith contributed greatly to the cultural life of his adopted country, a contribution that continues to this day.

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Edwin Rogers Embree

The Julius Rosenwald Fund, Foundation Philanthropy, and American Race Relations

Alfred Perkins

One of the most influential philanthropists of the early 20th century, Edwin Rogers Embree was the scion of generations of abolitionists and integrationists. He ably served the Rockefeller Foundation and when Julius Rosenwald created a foundation for his philanthropic activity, he called on Embree to be its head. The Rosenwald Fund is best known for constructing more than 5,300 schools for rural black communities in the South. In the 1940s, Embree became more personally engaged with race relations in the U.S. He chaired Chicago's Commission on Race Relations, helped create Roosevelt College, and was co-founder of the American Council on Race Relations. Late in life, Embree was president of the Liberian Foundation, devoted to improving health and education in Africa's oldest republic.

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Giving Circles

Philanthropy, Voluntary Association, and Democracy

Angela M. Eikenberry

In the contemporary United States, third parties are being relied upon to deliver social services that were once chiefly the responsibility of government. Among the new philanthropic associations that have arisen in this environment are voluntary groups known as giving circles. Their purpose is to bring people together to pool resources and then collectively decide how to distribute them. Giving circles have been seen as the most democratic of philanthropic mechanisms, working to meet social needs and solve community problems, while enhancing the civic education and participation of their members. Angela M. Eikenberry examines this new phenomenon and considers what role voluntary associations and philanthropy can or should play in a democratic society.

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Julius Rosenwald

The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South

Peter M. Ascoli

"This is the first serious biography of the exuberant man who transformed the Sears, Roebuck company into the country's most important retailer. He was also one of the early 20th century's notable philanthropists.... The richness of primary evidence continually delights." -- Judith Sealander, author of Private Wealth and Public Life

"[No] mere philanthropist [but a] subtle, stinging critic of our racial democracy." -- W. E. B. DuBois on Julius Rosenwald

In this richly revealing biography of a major, but little-known, American businessman and philanthropist, Peter Ascoli brings to life a portrait of Julius Rosenwald, the man and his work. The son of first-generation German Jewish immigrants, Julius Rosenwald, known to his friends as "JR," apprenticed for his uncles, who were major clothing manufacturers in New York City. It would be as a men's clothing salesperson that JR would make his fateful encounter with Sears, Roebuck and Company, which he eventually fashioned into the greatest mail order firm in the world. He also founded Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. And in the American South Rosenwald helped support the building of the more than 5,300 schools that bore his name. Yet the charitable fund he created during World War I went out of existence in 1948 at his expressed wish. Ascoli provides a fascinating account of Rosenwald's meteoric rise in American business, but he also portrays a man devoted to family and with a desire to help his community that led to a lifelong devotion to philanthropy. He tells about Rosenwald's important philanthropic activities, especially those connected with the Rosenwald schools and Booker T. Washington, and later through the Rosenwald Fund.

Ascoli's account of Rosenwald is an inspiring story of hard work and success, and of giving back to the nation in which he prospered.

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The Lucky Few and the Worthy Many

Scholarship Competitions and the World's Future Leaders

Edited by Alice Stone Ilchman, Warren F. Ilchman, and Mary Hale Tolar

Although winning a major competitive scholarship, such as the Rhodes or Marshall, is a strong marker for later success, there has been little serious research on how these scholarships are given and how the process could be improved. This book, the fruits of a discussion on "strengthening nationally and internationally competitive scholarships," presents studies that address issues of identifying leadership and creativity in the young, analyze alternative methods of selection, make suggestions for the proper evaluation of scholarship programs, and look at the backgrounds of American Rhodes Scholars. An introduction by the editors provides an overview of the issues.

Philanthropic and Nonprofit Studies -- Dwight F. Burlingame and David C. Hammack, editors

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Mrs. Russell Sage

Women's Activism and Philanthropy in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America

Ruth Crocker

This is the biography of a ruling-class woman who created a new identity for herself in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America. A wife who derived her social standing from her robber-baron husband, Olivia Sage managed to fashion an image of benevolence that made possible her public career. In her husband's shadow for 37 years, she took on the Victorian mantle of active, reforming womanhood. When Russell Sage died in 1906, he left her a vast fortune. An advocate for the rights of women and the responsibilities of wealth, for moral reform and material betterment, she took the money and put it to her own uses. Spending replaced volunteer work; suffrage bazaars and fundraising fĂȘtes gave way to large donations to favorite causes. As a widow, Olivia Sage moved in public with authority. She used her wealth to fund a wide spectrum of progressive reforms that had a lasting impact on American life, including her most significant philanthropy, the Russell Sage Foundation.

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Nonprofits in Crisis

Economic Development, Risk, and the Philanthropic Kuznets Curve

Nuno S. Themudo

Why do some countries have a vibrant nonprofit sector while others do not? Nonprofits in Crisis explores the theory of risk as a major mechanism through which economic development influences the nonprofit sector. Nuno S. Themudo elaborates this idea by focusing on Mexican nonprofit organizations, which operate and strive to survive in a risky environment. The study of these nonprofits generates broader lessons about philanthropy and the nonprofit sector that complement wider cross-national statistical analysis.

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