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Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48) Cover

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Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Michael Doebeli

Understanding the mechanisms driving biological diversity remains a central problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Traditional explanations assume that differences in selection pressures lead to different adaptations in geographically separated locations. This book takes a different approach and explores adaptive diversification--diversification rooted in ecological interactions and frequency-dependent selection. In any ecosystem, birth and death rates of individuals are affected by interactions with other individuals. What is an advantageous phenotype therefore depends on the phenotype of other individuals, and it may often be best to be ecologically different from the majority phenotype. Such rare-type advantage is a hallmark of frequency-dependent selection and opens the scope for processes of diversification that require ecological contact rather than geographical isolation.

Michael Doebeli investigates adaptive diversification using the mathematical framework of adaptive dynamics. Evolutionary branching is a paradigmatic feature of adaptive dynamics that serves as a basic metaphor for adaptive diversification, and Doebeli explores the scope of evolutionary branching in many different ecological scenarios, including models of coevolution, cooperation, and cultural evolution. He also uses alternative modeling approaches. Stochastic, individual-based models are particularly useful for studying adaptive speciation in sexual populations, and partial differential equation models confirm the pervasiveness of adaptive diversification.

Showing that frequency-dependent interactions are an important driver of biological diversity, Adaptive Diversification provides a comprehensive theoretical treatment of adaptive diversification.

The Adaptive Optics Revolution Cover

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The Adaptive Optics Revolution

A History

Robert W. Duffner; Foreword by Robert Q. Fugate

Duffner has compiled the history of the most revolutionary breakthrough in astronomy since Galileo pointed his telescope skyward--the technology that will greatly expand our understanding of the universe.

Adrenaline and the Inner World Cover

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Adrenaline and the Inner World

An Introduction to Scientific Integrative Medicine

David S. Goldstein, M.D., Ph.D.

This accessible work is the first in more than seventy-five years to discuss the many roles of adrenaline in regulating the "inner world" of the body. David S. Goldstein, an international authority and award-winning teacher, introduces new concepts concerning the nature of stress and distress across the body's regulatory systems. Discussing how the body's stress systems are coordinated, and how stress, by means of adrenaline, may affect the development, manifestations, and outcomes of chronic diseases, Goldstein challenges researchers and clinicians to use scientific integrative medicine to develop new ways to treat, prevent, and palliate disease. Goldstein explains why a former attorney general with Parkinson disease has a tendency to faint, why young astronauts in excellent physical shape cannot stand up when reexposed to Earth's gravity, why professional football players can collapse and die of heat shock during summer training camp, and why baseball players spit so much. Adrenaline and the Inner World is designed to supplement academic coursework in psychology, psychiatry, endocrinology, cardiology, complementary and alternative medicine, physiology, and biochemistry. It includes an extensive glossary.

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Advances in Cyber Security

Technology, Operation, and Experiences

D. Frank Hsu

As you read this, your computer is in jeopardy of being hacked and your identity being stolen. Read this book to protect yourselves from this threat.The world's foremost cyber security experts, from Ruby Lee, Ph.D., the Forrest G. Hamrick professor of engineering and Director of the Princeton Architecture Laboratory for Multimedia and Security (PALMS) at Princeton University; to Nick Mankovich, Chief Information Security Officer of Royal Philips Electronics; to FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III; to Special Assistant to the President Howard A. Schmidt, share critical practical knowledge on how the cyberspace ecosystem is structured, how it functions, and what we can do to protect it and ourselves fromattack and exploitation.The proliferation of social networking and advancement of information technology provide endless benefits in our living and working environments. However, these benefits also bring horrors in various forms of cyber threats andexploitations. Advances in Cyber Security collects the wisdom of cyber security professionals and practitioners from government, academia, and industry across national and international boundaries to provide ways and means to secure and sustain the cyberspace ecosystem. Readers are given a first-hand look at critical intelligence on cybercrime and security--including details of real-life operations. The vast, useful knowledge and experience shared in this essential new volume enables cyber citizens and cyber professionals alike to conceive novel ideasand construct feasible and practical solutions for defending against all kinds of adversaries and attacks.Among the many important topics covered in this collection are building a secure cyberspace ecosystem; public-private partnership to secure cyberspace; operation and law enforcement to protect our cyber citizens and to safeguard our cyber infrastructure; and strategy and policy issues to secure and sustain our cyber ecosystem.

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Adventures in the Wild

Tales from Biologists of the Natural State

The true tales in this collection will take readers from the chicken houses of Arkansas to the caves of Venezuela and Mexico to the coast of Alaska. These fifteen adventures range from amusing to life threatening. Some are filled with suspense and danger in exotic places, while others document more routine but important biological field and lab work.

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Aetna and the Moon

Explaining Nature in Ancient Greece and Rome

Liba Taub

Classical authors used both prose and poetry to explore and explain the natural world. In Aetna and the Moon, Liba Taub examines the variety of ways in which ancient Greeks and Romans conveyed scientific information. Oregon State University Press is proud to present this inaugural volume in the Horning Visiting Scholars Series.

In ancient Greece and Rome, most of the technical literature on scientific, mathematical, technological, and medical subjects was written in prose, as it is today. However, Greek and Roman poets produced a significant number of widely read poems that dealt with scientific topics. Why would an author choose poetry to explain the natural world? This question is complicated by claims made, since antiquity, that the growth of rational explanation involved the abandonment of poetry and the rejection of myth in favor of science.

Taub uses two texts to explore how scientific ideas were disseminated in the ancient world. The anonymous author of the Latin Aetna poem explained the science behind the volcano Etna with poetry. The Greek author Plutarch juxtaposed scientific and mythic explanations in his dialogue On the Face on the Moon.

Both texts provide a lens through which Taub considers the nature of scientific communication in ancient Greece and Rome. General readers will appreciate Taub’s thoughtful discussion concerning the choices available to ancient authors to convey their ideas about science—as important today as it was in antiquity—while Taub’s careful research and lively writing will engage classicists as well as historians of science.

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Affect and Artificial Intelligence

By Elizabeth A. Wilson

In 1950, Alan Turing, the British mathematician, cryptographer, and computer pioneer, looked to the future: now that the conceptual and technical parameters for electronic brains had been established, what kind of intelligence could be built? Should machine intelligence mimic the abstract thinking of a chess player or should it be more like the developing mind of a child? Should an intelligent agent only think, or should it also learn, feel, and grow? Affect and Artificial Intelligence is the first in-depth analysis of affect and intersubjectivity in the computational sciences. Elizabeth Wilson makes use of archival and unpublished material from the early years of AI (1945-70) until the present to show that early researchers were more engaged with questions of emotion than many commentators have assumed. She documents how affectivity was managed in the canonical works of Walter Pitts in the 1940s and Turing in the 1950s, in projects from the 1960s that injected artificial agents into psychotherapeutic encounters, in chess-playing machines from the 1940s to the present, and in the Kismet (sociable robotics) project at MIT in the 1990s. Elizabeth A. Wilson is a professor in the Department of Women's Studies at Emory University. She is the author of Neural Geographies: Feminism and the Microstructure of Cognition and Psychosomatic: Feminism and the Neurological Body. "Original and beautifully written." -Lucy Suchman, Lancaster University "An elegantly written, thoroughly engaging, and absolutely compelling history of the role of emotions and affect in thought about, and design of, 'artificial intelligence.'" -Robert Mitchell, Duke University "In this fresh and provocative contribution to the exploding field of affect studies, Elizabeth Wilson argues convincingly and in a spirit of welcome generosity that from its very beginnings the theory and practice of artificial intelligence has been decisively marked by feelings-surprise, curiosity, delight, shame, and contempt-as well as computational logic. She suggests, with wonderful wit and a fine intelligence, that interiority is conjugated by positive and passionate affects of attachment as well as cognitive circuits among humans and machines. Her own attachment to the archive of AI is palpable and her focus on the biography of key figures in its early history is immensely refreshing." -Kathleen Woodward, author of Statistical Panic: Cultural Politics and Poetics of the Emotions

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Africa in a Changing Global Environment

Perspectives of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in Africa

Africa is one continent severely affected by the ravaging effects of global environmental change yet it is least responsible for this. The continentís rural and urban poor are particularly vulnerable to reduced agricultural production, worsening food security, increased incidence of both flooding and drought, spreading of disease and heightening risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. As such this timely book consisting of chapters authored by scholars from multi-disciplinary backgrounds provides the reader a variety of contexts from which to understand the impacts of global environmental change and how a effected African communities are adapting and mitigating this scourge. In addition it discusses different models for mitigation and adaptation applicable to local contexts.

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After the Genome

A Language for Our Biotechnological Future

Michael J. Hyde

Biotechnological advancements during the last half-century have forced humanity to come to grips with the possibility of a post-human future. The ever-evolving opinions about how society should anticipate this biotechnological frontier demand a language that will describe our new future and discuss its ethics. After the Genome brings together expert voices from the realms of ethics, rhetoric, religion, and science to help lead complex conversations about end-of-life care, the relationship between sin and medicine, and the protection of human rights in a post-human world. With chapters on the past and future of the science-warfare narrative, the rhetoric of care and its effect on those suffering, black rhetoric and biotechnology, planning for the end of life, regenerative medicine, and more, After the Genome yields great insight into the human condition and moves us forward toward a genuinely humane approach to who we are and who we are becoming.

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The Afterlives of Animals

A Museum Menagerie

Edited by Samuel J.M.M. Alberti

In the quiet halls of the natural history museum, there are some creatures still alive with stories, whose personalities refuse to be relegated to the dusty corners of an exhibit. The fame of these beasts during their lifetimes has given them an iconic status in death. More than just museum specimens, these animals have attained a second life as historical and cultural records. This collection of essays--from a broad array of contributors, including anthropologists, curators, fine artists, geographers, historians, and journalists--comprises short "biographies" of a number of famous taxidermized animals. Each essay traces the life, death, and museum "afterlife" of a specific creature, illuminating the overlooked role of the dead beast in the modern human-animal encounter through practices as disparate as hunting and zookeeping. The contributors offer fresh examinations of the many levels at which humans engage with other animals, especially those that function as both natural and cultural phenomena, including Queen Charlotte’s pet zebra, Maharajah the elephant, and Balto the sled dog, among others. Readers curious about the enduring fascination with animals who have attained these strange afterlives will be drawn to the individual narratives within each essay, while learning more about the scientific, cultural, and museological contexts of each subject. Ranging from autobiographical to analytical, the contributors’ varying styles make this delightful book a true menagerie.

Contributors: Samuel J. M. M. Alberti, Royal College of Surgeons * Sophie Everest, University of Manchester * Kate Foster * Michelle Henning, University of the West of England, Bristol * Hayden Lorimer, University of Glasgow * Garry Marvin, Roehampton University, London * Henry Nicholls * Hannah Paddon * Merle Patchett * Christopher Plumb, University of Manchester * Rachel Poliquin * Jeanne Robinson, Glasgow Museums * Mike Rutherford, University of the West Indies * Richard C. Sabin, Natural History Museum * Richard Sutcliffe, Glasgow Museums * Geoffrey N. Swinney, University of Edinburgh

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