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Antoine Lavoisier: The Next Crucial Year

Or, The Sources of His Quantitative Method in Chemistry

Frederic Lawrence Holmes

Through his development of quantitative experimental methods, the chemist Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) implemented a principle that many regard as the cornerstone of modern science: in every operation there is an equal quantity of material before and after the operation. The origin of Lavoisier's methods, however, has remained a missing piece in this remarkable episode of scientific history, perhaps because the talented young scientist himself was not prepared for the journey his discoveries would set before him. In this book, Frederic Holmes suggests that Lavoisier gradually came to understand the nature and power of his quantitative method during the year 1773, when he began to carry out a research program on the fixation and release of airs. Drawing upon Lavoisier's surviving laboratory notebooks, Holmes presents an engaging portrait of a scientist still seeking the way that would lead him to become the leader of one of the great upheavals in the history of science.

Holmes follows Lavoisier day-by-day at work in his laboratory over a course of several months. The scientist's resourcefulness and imagination spring to life in this account, as does his propensity to make mistakes, which taught him as much as his successes. During the course of this odyssey, Lavoisier saw his early theory of combustion collapse under the weight of his own efforts to provide experimental evidence to support it. In compensation, he acquired a method and the hard-won experience on which he would later construct a more enduring theoretical structure.

Originally published in 1997.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

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Anxiety

A Short History

Allan V. Horwitz

More people today report feeling anxious than ever before—even while living in relatively safe and prosperous modern societies. Almost one in five people experiences an anxiety disorder each year, and more than a quarter of the population admits to an anxiety condition at some point in their lives. Here Allan V. Horwitz, a sociologist of mental illness and mental health, narrates how this condition has been experienced, understood, and treated through the ages—from Hippocrates, through Freud, to today. Anxiety is rooted in an ancient part of the brain, and our ability to be anxious is inherited from species far more ancient than humans. Anxiety is often adaptive: it enables us to respond to threats. But when normal fear yields to what psychiatry categorizes as anxiety disorders, it becomes maladaptive. As Horwitz explores the history and multiple identities of anxiety—melancholia, nerves, neuroses, phobias, and so on—it becomes clear that every age has had its own anxieties and that culture plays a role in shaping how anxiety is expressed.

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Apostles of the Alps

Mountaineering and Nation Building in Germany and Austria, 1860-1939

Tait Keller

Though the Alps may appear to be a peaceful place, the famed mountains once provided the backdrop for a political, environmental, and cultural battle as Germany and Austria struggled to modernize. Tait Keller examines the mountains' threefold role in transforming the two countries, as people sought respite in the mountains, transformed and shaped them according to their needs, and over time began to view them as national symbols and icons of individualism.

In the mid-nineteenth century, the Alps were regarded as a place of solace from industrial development and the stresses of urban life. Soon, however, mountaineers, or the so-called apostles of the Alps, began carving the crags to suit their whims, altering the natural landscape with trails and lodges, and seeking to modernize and nationalize the high frontier. Disagreements over the meaning of modernization opened the mountains to competing agendas and hostile ambitions. Keller examines the ways in which these opposing approaches corresponded to the political battles, social conflicts, culture wars, and environmental crusades that shaped modern Germany and Austria, placing the Alpine borderlands at the heart of the German question of nationhood.

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The Apotheosis of Janaab' Pakal

Science, History, and Religion at Classic Maya Palenque

By Gerardo Aldana

"This book represents a major step in looking at the intellectual development of Maya astronomy in a particular historical context and reflects the emerging new understainding of Maya science."—Stephen McCluskey, ISIS

The Apotheosis of Janaab' Pakal takes up anew the riddles within a number of Maya hieroglyphic inscriptions first recognized by Floyd Lounsbury. Gerardo Aldana unpacks these mathematical riddles using an approach grounded in a reading of the texts made possible by recent advances in decipherment. Using a history of science methodology, he expands upon (and sometimes questions) the foundational work of archaeoastronomers. Aldana follows three lines of investigation: a reading of the hieroglyphic inscriptions of the Classic period (a.d. 250-900), mathematical analysis to recover Classic Maya astronomical practice, and a historiography of Maya astronomy. Quoted hieroglyphs appear throughout the text for cross-examination. Aldana reveals the social and political context of Maya astronomy by explicating the science and calendrical calculations found in the tablets of the Temple of Inscriptions and the Cross Group from the city of Palenque. He offers a compelling interpretation of an 819-day count, demonstrating its utility as an astronumerological tool that Maya scribes used to simplify complex calculations. During troubled times in Palenque, Aldana contends, Kan Balam II devised a means to preserve the legitimacy of his ruling dynasty. He celebrated a re-creation of the city as a contemporary analogue of a mythical Creation on three levels: monumental construction for a public audience, artistic patronage for an elite audience, and a secret mathematical astronomical language only for rulers-elect. Discussing all of these efforts, Aldana focuses on the recovery of the secret language and its historical context.

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Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America, Volume I

A Revised and Enlarged Edition of Norman C. Fassett's A Manual of Aquatic Plants, Volume I: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons

Garrett E. Crow and C. Barre Hellquist

This is by far the best and most comprehensive manual and illustrated guide to native and naturalized vascular plants—ferns, conifers, and flowering plants—growing in aquatic and wetland habitats in northeastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and south to Virginia and Missouri. Published in two volumes, this long-awaited work completely revises and greatly expands Norman Fassett’s 1940 classic A Manual of Aquatic Plants, yet retains the features that made Fassett’s book so useful.

 Features include:
 *  coverage of 1139 plant species, 1186 taxa, 295 genera, 109 families
 *  more than 600 pages of illustrations, and illustrations for more than 90% of the taxa
 *  keys for each species include references to corresponding illustrations
 *  habitat information, geographical ranges, and synonomy
 *  a chapter on nuisance aquatic weeds
 *  glossaries of botanical and habitat terms
 *  a full index for each volume

Wetland ecologists, botanists, resource managers, public naturalists, and environmentalists concerned with the preservation of wetland areas, which are increasingly threatened, will welcome this clear, workable, and comprehensive guide.

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Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America, Volume II

A Revised and Enlarged Edition of Norman C. Fassett's A Manual of Aquatic Plants, Volume II: Angiosperms: Monocotyledons

Garrett E. Crow and C. Barre Hellquist

This is by far the best and most comprehensive manual and illustrated guide to native and naturalized vascular plants—ferns, conifers, and flowering plants—growing in aquatic and wetland habitats in northeastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and south to Virginia and Missouri. Published in two volumes, this long-awaited work completely revises and greatly expands Norman Fassett’s 1940 classic A Manual of Aquatic Plants, yet retains the features that made Fassett’s book so useful.

 Features include:
 *  coverage of 1139 plant species, 1186 taxa, 295 genera, 109 families
 *  more than 600 pages of illustrations, and illustrations for more than 90% of the taxa
 *  keys for each species include references to corresponding illustrations
 *  habitat information, geographical ranges, and synonomy
 *  a chapter on nuisance aquatic weeds
 *  glossaries of botanical and habitat terms
 *  a full index for each volume

Wetland ecologists, botanists, resource managers, public naturalists, and environmentalists concerned with the preservation of wetland areas, which are increasingly threatened, will welcome this clear, workable, and comprehensive guide.

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Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States

Dicotyledons

Robert K. Godfrey and Jean W. Wooten

This is the long-awaited second volume of Godfrey and Wooten's definitive survey of aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States. It focuses on native and naturalized dicotyledons of the region and provides well-written, concise descriptions and keys for the identification of 1,084 species. A glossary of terms, list of references, separate indexes of common and scientific names, and nearly 400 well-executed drawings complete the volume.

The first comprehensive survey of the aquatic and wetland plants of the Southeast, the Godfrey and Wooten volumes will prove invaluable to botanists, ecologists, college students, government agencies involved in land-use management, and nonspecialists interested in the plant life and ecology of the region.

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Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States

Monocotyledons

Robert K. Godfrey and Jean W. Wooten

This first volume of a two-volume definitive survey of aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States focuses on native and naturalized monocotyledons in the following physiographic provinces: Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains; southern Appalachian highlands, flanked on the east by the Piedmont plateau and on the west by the Appalachian plateau; the interior lowlands; and the interior highlands.

Robert K. Godfrey and Jean W. Wooten provide well-written, concise descriptions and keys for the identification of seven hundred species. The text for each species includes both a statement indicating the habitats in which the plant is usually found and information about its geographical distribution. Approximately four hundred drawings supplement the text and provide additional information for proper identification. The authors use nontechnical language whenever possible and include a glossary of technical terms.

The first comprehensive survey of the aquatic and wetland monocotyledons of the Southeast, this book will prove invaluable for ecologists, botanists, and nonspecialists interested in the plant life and ecology of the region.

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Aquatic Photosynthesis

(Second Edition)

Paul G. Falkowski

Aquatic Photosynthesis is a comprehensive guide to understanding the evolution and ecology of photosynthesis in aquatic environments. This second edition, thoroughly revised to bring it up to date, describes how one of the most fundamental metabolic processes evolved and transformed the surface chemistry of the Earth. The book focuses on recent biochemical and biophysical advances and the molecular biological techniques that have made them possible.

In ten chapters that are self-contained but that build upon information presented earlier, the book starts with a reductionist, biophysical description of the photosynthetic reactions. It then moves through biochemical and molecular biological patterns in aquatic photoautotrophs, physiological and ecological principles, and global biogeochemical cycles. The book considers applications to ecology, and refers to historical developments. It can be used as a primary text in a lecture course, or as a supplemental text in a survey course such as biological oceanography, limnology, or biogeochemistry.

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Aquatic Plants of Pennsylvania

A Complete Reference Guide

By Timothy A. Block and Ann Fowler Rhoads. Illustrations by Anna Anisko

From the Delaware River to the shores of Lake Erie, Pennsylvania's diverse watery habitats are home to more than 200 species of aquatic plants. In Aquatic Plants of Pennsylvania: A Complete Reference Guide, botanists Timothy A. Block and Ann Fowler Rhoads have assembled the first identification guide specific to the Keystone State yet useful throughout the Mid Atlantic region. Organized and written in a way that will make information easily accessible to specialists and nonspecialists alike, the book highlights the diversity and vital ecological importance of this group of plants, providing photographs, illustrations, descriptions, and identification keys for all emergent, floating-leaved, and submergent aquatic plants found in the Commonwealth.

An introductory chapter on aquatic plant ecology covers topics such as evolution, form, and reproduction of aquatic plants, vegetation zones, types of aquatic ecosystems, and rare and endangered species. Information on invasive plants, such as Eurasian water-milfoil and curly pondweed, that threaten Pennsylvania's aquatic ecosystems will be especially useful to watershed organizations, citizen monitoring projects, lake managers, and natural resource agency personnel. An illustrated identification key guides the reader through a series of steps to properly identify a specimen based on its characteristics. Each of the more than 200 listings provides a plant's taxonomy, detailed description, distribution map, and expert botanical illustrations. Many also include color photographs of the plants in their natural habitats.

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