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China, the West, and Their First Encounter
Accounts of the seventeenth-century Jesuit Mission to China have often celebrated it as the great encounter of two civilizations. The Jesuits portrayed themselves as wise men from the West who used mathematics and science in service of their mission. Chinese literati-official Xu Guangqi (1562–1633), who collaborated with the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) to translate Euclid’s Elements into Chinese, reportedly recognized the superiority of Western mathematics and science and converted to Christianity. The writings relegate Xu and the Chinese to subsidiary roles as the Jesuits' translators, followers, and converts. Imagined Civilizations tells the story from the Chinese point of view. Using Chinese primary sources, Roger Hart focuses in particular on Xu, who was in a position of considerable power over Ricci. The result is a perspective startlingly different from that found in previous studies. Hart analyzes Chinese mathematical treatises of the period, revealing that Xu and his collaborators could not have believed their declaration of the superiority of Western mathematics. Imagined Civilizations explains how Xu’s West served as a crucial resource. While the Jesuits claimed Xu as a convert, he presented the Jesuits as men from afar who had traveled from the West to China to serve the emperor.
Fruit de la collaboration des professeur Walter Hengarther de l’Université Laval, Marcel Lambert et Corina Reischer de l’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Introduction à l’analyse fonctionnelle se distingue tant par l’étendue de son contenu que par l’accessibilité de sa présentation. Sans céder quoi que ce soit sur la rigueur, il est parfaitement adapté à un premier cours d’analyse fonctionnelle. Tout en étant d’abord destiné aux étudiants en mathématiques, il pourra certes être utile aux étudiants de second cycle en sciences et en génie.
Les auteurs leur proposent donc une approche pratique et empirique qui allie l’analyse statistique à l’utilisation d’un logiciel facile d’accès : SPSS. En décrivant les diverses méthodes de l’analyse multivariée, ils présentent les interrelations entre plusieurs variables d’une base de données et en généralisent les conclusions par inférence statistique du traitement informatique des données jusqu’à l’interprétation des résultats.
As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues. In a number of applications, the accuracy and efficiency of the least squares fit is central, and Per Christian Hansen, Víctor Pereyra, and Godela Scherer survey modern computational methods and illustrate them in fields ranging from engineering and environmental sciences to geophysics. Anyone working with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis that help readers to understand and evaluate the computed solutions • many examples that illustrate the techniques and algorithms Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and professionals in the sciences and in engineering.
This book aims to illustrate with practical examples the applications of linear optimization techniques. It is written in simple and easy to understand language and has put together a useful and comprehensive set of worked examples based on real life problems.
Cet ouvrage présente un traitement mathématique rigoureux des notions fondamentales de l'algèbre linéaire et illustre son utilisation dans de nombreuses applications. Destiné aux étudiants qui sont déjà familiers avec les concepts élémentaires de l'algèbre matricielle, il répond principalement aux besoins des étudiants de premier ou de deuxième cycle en mathématiques. Les étudiants en statistique, en physique et en ingénierie y trouveront aussi leurs intérêts à travers les nombreux thèmes et applications touchant ces domaines. Chaque chapitre est agrémenté d'exercices gradués qui complètent la théorie et permettent au lecteur de vérifier sa compréhension des sujets abordés. Un recueil de solutions très détaillées des 335 exercices de ce volume est publié séparément.
Mel Gibson teaching Euclidean geometry, Meg Ryan and Tim Robbins acting out Zeno's paradox, Michael Jackson proving in three different ways that 7 x 13 = 28. These are just a few of the intriguing mathematical snippets that occur in hundreds of movies. Burkard Polster and Marty Ross have pored through the cinematic calculus and here offer a thorough and entertaining survey of the quirky, fun, and beautiful mathematics to be found on the big screen. Math Goes to the Movies is based on the authors’ own collection of more than 700 mathematical movies and their many years using movie clips to inject moments of fun into their courses. With more than 200 illustrations, many of them screenshots from the movies themselves, this book provides an inviting way to explore math, featuring such movies as • Good Will Hunting • A Beautiful Mind • Stand and Deliver • Pi • Die Hard • The Mirror Has Two Faces The authors use these iconic movies to introduce and explain important and famous mathematical ideas: higher dimensions, the golden ratio, infinity, and much more. Not all math in movies makes sense, however, and Polster and Ross talk about Hollywood’s most absurd blunders and outrageous mathematical scenes. They round out this engaging journey into the realm of mathematics by conducting interviews with mathematical consultants to movies. This fascinating behind-the-scenes look at movie math shows how fun and illuminating equations can be.
This magisterial annotated bibliography of the earliest mathematical works to be printed in the New World challenges long-held assumptions about the earliest examples of American mathematical endeavor. Bruce Stanley Burdick brings together mathematical writings from Mexico, Lima, and the English colonies of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New York. The book provides important information such as author, printer, place of publication, and location of original copies of each of the works discussed. Burdick’s exhaustive research has unearthed numerous examples of books not previously cataloged as mathematical. While it was thought that no mathematical writings in English were printed in the Americas before 1703, Burdick gives scholars one of their first chances to discover Jacob Taylor’s 1697 Tenebrae, a treatise on solving triangles and other figures using basic trigonometry. He also goes beyond the English language to discuss works in Spanish and Latin, such as Alonso de la Vera Cruz's 1554 logic text, the Recognitio Summularum; a book on astrology by Enrico Martínez; books on the nature of comets by Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora and Eusebio Francisco Kino; and a 1676 almanac by Feliciana Ruiz, the first woman to produce a mathematical work in the Americas. Those fascinated by mathematics, its history, and its culture will note with interest that many of these works, including all of the earliest ones, are from Mexico, not from what is now the United States. As such, the book will challenge us to rethink the history of mathematics on the American continents.