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Calunga and the Legacy of an African Language in Brazil

Steven Byrd

Although millions of slaves were forcibly transported from Africa to Brazil, the languages the slaves brought with them remain little known. Most studies have focused on African contributions to Brazilian Portuguese rather than on the African languages themselves. This book is unusual in focusing on an African-descended language. The author describes and analyzes the Afro- Brazilian speech community of Calunga, in Minas Gerais. Linguistically descended from West African Bantu, Calunga is an endangered Afro-Brazilian language spoken by a few hundred older Afro-Brazilian men, who use it only for specific, secret communications. Unlike most creole languages, which are based largely on the vocabulary of the colonial language, Calunga has a large proportion of African vocabulary items embedded in an essentially Portuguese grammar. A hyrid language, its formation can be seen as a form of cultural resistance.

Steven Byrd’s study provides a comprehensive linguistic description of Calunga based on two years of interviews with speakers of the language. He examines its history and historical context as well as its linguistic context, its sociolinguistic profile, and its lexical and grammatical outlines.

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Cancionero

Songs of Laughter and Faith in New Mexico

John Donald Robb

Composer John Donald Robb (1892–1989) built an invaluable legacy in the preservation of New Mexico’s rich musical traditions. His extensive field recordings, compositions, papers, and photographs now comprise the John Donald Robb Archives in the University of New Mexico Libraries’ Center for Southwest Research. Cancionero presents thirteen Hispanic folk songs from Robb’s renowned archive. Created for musicians and vocalists, Cancionero features arrangements for voice with piano or guitar accompaniments as well as selected concert versions for voice, oboe, harp, and piano. Introductions include information about song forms, history, and subjects, providing further insight into each song.

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Captain Jack Crawford

Buckskin Poet, Scout, and Showman

Darlis A. Miller

Jack Crawford (1847–1917) entertained a generation of Americans and introduced them to their frontier heritage. A master storyteller who presented the West as he experienced it, he was one of America’s most popular performers in the late nineteenth century.

Dressed in buckskin with a wide-brimmed sombrero covering his flowing locks, Crawford delivered a “frontier monologue and medley” that, as one New York City journalist reported, “held his audience spell-bound for two hours by a simple narration of his life.”

In this biography, Darlis Miller re-creates his experiences as a scout, rancher, miner, reformer, husband and father, and poet and entertainer to reinterpret the American Dream and the lure of getting rich pursued by many during the Gilded Age.

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Capturing the Women's Army Corps

The World War II Photographs of Captain Charlotte T. McGraw

Francoise Barnes Bonnell

The photographs taken by Charlotte T. McGraw, the official Women’s Army Corps photographer during World War II, offer the single most comprehensive visual record of the approximately 140,000 women who served in the U.S. Army during the war. This collection of 150 of McGraw’s photos includes pictures made in Africa, in England at the headquarters of the European Theater of Operations, in Asia and the Pacific, and in military hospitals in the United States.

Serving from July 1942 to August 1946, Captain McGraw provided more than 73,000 photographs to the War Department Bureau of Public Affairs. Her photographs were published in the New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, and used by the Associated Press and the United Press, as well as in recruiting posters, handouts and informational pamphlets, and in the most popular magazines of the era such as Time, Colliers, Women’s Home Companion, Parade, Saturday Evening Post, and Mademoiselle.

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Ch'orti'-Maya Survival in Eastern Guatemala

Indigeneity in Transition

Brent Metz

Scholars and Guatemalans have characterized eastern Guatemala as "Ladino" or non-Indian. The Ch'orti' do not exhibit the obvious indigenous markers found among the Mayas of western Guatemala, Chiapas, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Few still speak Ch'orti', most no longer wear distinctive dress, and most community organizations have long been abandoned.

During the colonial period, the Ch'orti' region was adjacent to relatively vibrant economic regions of Central America that included major trade routes, mines, and dye plantations. In the twentieth century Ch'orti's directly experienced U.S.-backed dictatorships, a 36-year civil war from start to finish, and Christian evangelization campaigns, all while their population has increased exponentially. These have had tremendous impacts on Ch'orti' identities and cultures.

From 1991 to 1993, Brent Metz lived in three Ch'orti' Maya-speaking communities, learning the language, conducting household surveys, and interviewing informants. He found Ch'orti's to be ashamed of their indigeneity, and he was fortunate to be present and involved when many Ch'orti's joined the Maya Movement. He has continued to expand his ethnographic research of the Ch'orti' annually ever since and has witnessed how Ch'orti's are reformulating their history and identity.

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Chasing Dichos through Chimayó

Don J. Usner

The poetic proverbs known to nuevomexicanos as dichos are particular to their places of origin. In these reflections on the dichos of the Chimayó Valley in northern New Mexico native son Don J. Usner has written a memoir that is also a valuable source of information on the rich language and culture of the region. Illustrated with black-and-white photographs that Usner, who is also known for his photographic work, took of the people and places that he writes about, this book is a one-of-a-kind introduction to the real New Mexico.

Usner has known Chimayó since he was a boy visiting his grandmother and the other village elders, who taught him genealogies going back to family origins in Spain. The Spanish he learned there was embedded in dichos and cuentos. This book is the result of Usner’s research into these memorable sayings, and it preserves a language and a culture on the verge on dissolution. It is a gateway into a uniquely New Mexican way of life.

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Chasing the Santa Fe Ring

Power and Privilege in Territorial New Mexico

David L. Caffey

Anyone who has even a casual acquaintance with the history of New Mexico in the nineteenth century has heard of the Santa Fe Ring—seekers of power and wealth in the post–Civil War period famous for public corruption and for dispossessing land holders. Surprisingly, however, scholars have alluded to the Ring but never really described this shadowy entity, which to this day remains a kind of black hole in New Mexico’s territorial history. David Caffey looks beyond myth and symbol to explore its history. Who were its supposed members, and what did they do to deserve their unsavory reputation? Were their actions illegal or unethical? What were the roles of leading figures like Stephen B. Elkins and Thomas B. Catron? What was their influence on New Mexico’s struggle for statehood?

Caffey’s book tells the story of the rise and fall of this remarkably durable alliance.

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Childhood

Origins, Evolution, and Implications

Courtney L. Meehan

This collection is the first to specifically address our current understanding of the evolution of human childhood, which in turn significantly affects our interpretations of the evolution of family formation, social organization, cultural transmission, cognition, ontogeny, and the physical and socioemotional needs of children. Moreover, the importance of studying the evolution of childhood has begun to extend beyond academic modeling and into real-world applications for maternal and child health and well-being in contemporary populations around the world. Combined, the chapters show that what we call childhood is culturally variable yet biologically based and has been critical to the evolutionary success of our species; the significance of integrating childhood into models of human life history and evolution cannot be overstated. This volume further demonstrates the benefits of interdisciplinary investigation and is sure to spur further interest in the field.

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A Civil War History of the New Mexico Volunteers and Militia

Jerry D. Thompson

The Civil War in New Mexico began in 1861 with the Confederate invasion and occupation of the Mesilla Valley. At the same time, small villages and towns in New Mexico Territory faced raids from Navajos and Apaches. In response the commander of the Department of New Mexico Colonel Edward Canby and Governor Henry Connelly recruited what became the First and Second New Mexico Volunteer Infantry. In this book leading Civil War historian Jerry Thompson tells their story for the first time, along with the history of a third regiment of Mounted Infantry and several companies in a fourth regiment.

Thompson’s focus is on the Confederate invasion of 1861–1862 and its effects, especially the bloody Battle of Valverde. The emphasis is on how the volunteer companies were raised; who led them; how they were organized, armed, and equipped; what they endured off the battlefield; how they adapted to military life; and their interactions with New Mexico citizens and various hostile Indian groups, including raiding by deserters and outlaws. Thompson draws on service records and numerous other archival sources that few earlier scholars have seen. His thorough accounting will be a gold mine for historians and genealogists, especially the appendix, which lists the names of all volunteers and militia men.

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Claims and Speculations

Mining and Writing in the Gilded Age

Janet Floyd

Mines have always been hard and dangerous places. They have also been as dependent upon imaginative writing as upon the extraction of precious materials. This study of a broad range of responses to gold and silver mining in the late nineteenth century sets the literary writings of figures such as Mark Twain, Mary Hallock Foote, Bret Harte, and Jack London within the context of writing and representation produced by people involved in the industry: miners and journalists, as well as writers of folklore and song.

Floyd begins by considering some of the grand narratives the industry has generated. She goes on to discuss particular places and the distinctive work they generated—the short fictions of the California Gold Rush, the Sagebrush journalism of Nevada’s Comstock Lode, Leadville romance, and the popular culture of the Klondike.

With excursions to Canada, South Africa, and Australia, Floyd looks at how the experience of a destructive and chaotic industry produced a global literature.

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