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This book considers how global capitalism affects fragile peace processes in countries suffering under years of violent conflict. While these countries benefit from few of the resources made available through a global economy, they are nonetheless woven within, and reliant upon, the economic and political relationships such an economy demands. By including the work of anthropologists, economists, religious studies experts, sociologists and political scientists, this book presents a broad yet thorough exploration of the complexities of peacebuilding in a free market. “Much of the current research on peacebuilding focuses on domestic factors while failing to take into account both the international political context and the pressures of market liberalization on fragile peace processes,” the editors write. “Indeed, what are apparently localized conflicts depend upon resource flows that extend well beyond national borders.” Included in the text are specific studies of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East as well as considerations of conflicts on the global scale.
The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana
As urbanization of the world’s population grows at an ever-increasing pace, the need to understand the effects of globalization on cities is at the forefront of urban studies. Traditional scholarship largely employs a framework of analysis based on the globablizing experience of Western cities. In Globalizing City, Richard Grant draws on ten years of empirical research in Accra, Ghana’s capital city, to show how this African metropolis is as deeply transformed by globalization as the cities of other world regions.
Writing Beyond the Curriclum in the City of Brotherly Love
In Gravyland, Parks chronicles the history of an urban university writing program and its attempt to develop politically progressive literacy partnerships with the surrounding community while having to work within and against a traditional educational and cultural landscape. He details the experience of the New City Writing program at Temple University from its beginning as a small institute with one program at a local public school to a multi-faceted organization, raising millions of dollars, and establishing partnerships across the diverse neighborhoods of Philadelphia. In doing so, the author describes classrooms where the community takes a seat and becomes part of the conversation—a conversation which is recorded and shared through a selection of writing produced. While Parks celebrates classroom success in generating knowledge through dialog with the larger community, he also highlights many of the obstacles the organizers of the New City Writing program faced. The author shows that writing alliances between universities and communities are possible but they must take into account the institutional, economic, and political pressures that accompany such partnerships. Blending the theoretical and practical lessons learned, Parks details New City Writing’s effort to offer a new model of education, one in which the voice of the professor must share space with the voices of the community, and one in which students come to understand that the right to sit in a classroom is not just the result of war, but of peaceful civil disobedience, of community struggles to gain self-recognition, and of collective efforts to seek social justice.
An Alternative Red/Green vision
It is widely understood that the burdens of ecological destruction are borne disproportionately by working-class and poor communities, both through illness and disease caused by pollutants and through the depletion of natural resources from which they make a living. Yet, consistently, the voices of the working class are the most marginalized, excluded, and silenced discussions about how to address ecological concerns and to protect the environment from future destruction. Both mainstream environmental groups, such as the Sierra Club and Greenpeace, and the radical environmentalists, such as EarthFirst!, are reluctant to engage with working class and poor communities, often viewing blue-collar workers as responsible for the destruction these groups are trying to prevent. In Green Syndicalism, Shantz issues a call to action to the environmental movement and labor activists, those who represent the working class, to join forces in a common struggle to protect the environment from capitalism, corporate greed, and the extraction of resources. Shantz argues for a major transformation to address the “jobs versus the environment” rhetoric that divides these two groups along lines of race and class. Combining practical initiatives and theoretical perspectives, Shantz offers an approach that brings together radical ecology and revolutionary unionism in a promising vision of green politics. Green syndicalists work as coalitions to increase community-based economics and productive decision making that encourages the participation of all stakeholders in the process. Drawing, in part, on his own experiences growing up in a working-class family and organizing within radical ecology and labor movements, Shantz charts a path that accesses the commonalities between these groups in an effort to take on the forces that destroy the environment, exploit people, and harm their communities.
Modernization, Secularism, Democracy, and the Fadai Period of Natinal Liberation in Iran, 1971-1979
Emerging in the early 1970s, the Organization of Iranian People’s Fadai Guerrillas (OIPFG) became one of the most important secular leftist political organizations in Iran. Despite their lasting influence and the way in which their efforts helped shape the history of Iran for decades to come, little is known about the group. A Guerrilla Odyssey presents the first comprehensive examination of the rise and fall of the Fadai urban guerrilla movement in Iran. Drawing on exhaustive analyses of the published and unpublished works of the Fadai Guerrillas, as well as of archival material and interviews with activists, the author demonstrates historically and sociologically the conditions that surrounded the debut and demise of the urban guerrilla warfare that defined Iranian political life in the 1970s. Vahabzadeh offers a critique of various aspects of the Fadai’s theories of national liberation in an attempt to reconsider the painful relationship among modernization, secularism, and democracy in contemporary Iran. In addition, the author makes a compelling case explaining why older revolutionary social movements of the 1960s and 1970s have transformed into the new democratic social movements that emerged from the 1980s onward in the form of today’s women’s, student, and youth movements in Iran. A Guerilla Odyssey is a meticulously researched and engrossing narrative that promises to be a major contribution to the field of Iranian history.
The Making of Eurocentrism in World History
Hegel, more than any other modern Western philosopher, produced the most systematic case for the superiority of Western white Protestant bourgeois modernity. He established a racially structured ladder of gradation of the peoples of the world, putting Germanic people at the top of the racial pyramid, people of Asia in the middle, and Africans and indigenous peoples of the Americas and Pacific Islands at the bottom. In Hegel and the Third World, Tibebu guides the reader through Hegel’s presentation on universalism and argues that such a classification flows in part from Hegel’s philosophy of the development of human consciousness. Hegel classified Africans as people arrested at the lowest and most immediate stage of consciousness, that of the senses; Asians as people with divided consciousness, that of the understanding; and Europeans as people of reason. Tibebu demonstrates that Hegel’s views were not his alone but reflected the fundamental beliefs of other major figures of Western thought at the time.
Uncovering the French Headscarf Debate
The hijab is arguably the most discussed and controversial item of women’s clothing today. It has become the primary global symbol of female Muslim identity for Muslims and non-Muslims alike, and is the focus of much debate in the confrontation between Islam and the West. Nowhere has this debate been more acute or complex than in France. In Hijab and the Republic, Bronwyn Winter provides a riveting account of the controversial 2004 French law to ban Islamic headscarves and other religious signs from public schools. While much has been written on the subject, Winter offers a unique feminist perspective, carefully delineating its political and cultural aspects.
Preventing sweeping human rights violations or wars and rebuilding societies in their aftermath require an approach encompassing the perspectives of both human rights advocates and practitioners of conflict resolution. While these two groups work to achieve many of the same goals—notably to end violence and loss of life—they often make different assumptions, apply different methods, and operate under different values and institutional constraints. As a result, they may adopt conflicting or even mutually exclusive approaches to the same problem. Eileen F. Babbitt and Ellen L. Lutz have collected groundbreaking essays exploring the relationship between human rights and conflict resolution. Employing a case study approach, the contributing authors examine three areas of conflict—Sierra Leone, Colombia, and Northern Ireland—from the perspectives of participants in both the peace-making and human rights efforts in each country. By spotlighting the role of activists and reflecting on what was learned in these cases, this volume seeks to push scholars and practitioners of both conflict resolution and human rights to think more creatively about the intersection of these two fields.
Marriage and Citizenship in the Ottoman Frontier Provinces of Iraq
Imperial Citizen considers the geopolitical necessities of Ottoman-Iranian/Sunni-Shi‘ite relations in the Iraqi frontier provinces in the late 19th-early 20th century through an examination of Ottoman centralization policies, and the impact of those policies on Ottoman citizenship laws and on the institution of marriage.
Quality Publishing in the West
Born and raised on the windswept prairies of northwest Wyoming, Alan Swallow (1915–1966) nurtured a passion for literature and poetry at an early age. Quickly realizing he was not suited to a life of farming and ranching, Swallow entered the University of Wyoming to study literature and earned a fellowship to further his studies at Louisiana State University. It was there, under the influence of Robert Penn Warren and Cleanth Brooks, that Swallow began his almost three-decade-long career as a publisher, teacher, and poet. This outstanding biography is the first to explore the fascinating life of Alan Swallow, a pioneering western publisher whose authors included such literary luminaries as Anaïs Nin, Allen Tate, and Yvor Winters. Moving to Colorado, Swallow founded the Swallow Press and dedicated himself to bringing literary authors, both regionally and nationally recognized, to print in high-quality yet affordable books. Swallow’s tireless work as an editor and innovative publisher gave him much integrity. He became a revered literary figure of his day, while rumors of his marital infidelities and his fondness for fast cars earned him a different notoriety. Nelson brings this forgotten episode of publishing history vividly back to life, shining a bright light on the rich literary legacy of the West.