Browse Results For:
On the eve of the war against the South Vietnamese regime in 1964, the communist party strove to carve out a new productivist and political elite from the towns and villages of the country. According to a categorization of patriotic exemplarity devised by Ho Chi Minh, "avant-garde workers", "exemplary soldiers" and "new heroes" would fill the ranks of a "new model society", one in which political virtue would serve as the principle to mobilize the masses. This study present and analyzes the process by which "new heroes" were invented. It first develops a picture of what constituted heroes in Vietnamese tradition and history, and then shows how the new model, effectively a Sino-Soviet import, was imposed, only to be slowly distorted by its own cultural rationale and by specific objectives. Far from being a transitory phenomenon, this model has contributed for more than half a century to the reconstruction of the national imagination and the development of a new collective, patriotic and communist memory in Vietnam.
Korean science is closely related to traditional Chinese technology, but Jeon Sang-woon's A History of Science and Technology in Koreafollows a different course of development. Building on Chinese foundations, Korean scientists, engineers and technicians developed technologies that were adapted to the natural elements, seasons and climate of the Korean peninsula. the writer develops this thesis by considering the creative legacy of Korean practitioners in a number of different areas: astronomy and meteorology ("the sciences of the heavens"), metal, glass and gunpowder ("the sciences of earth and fire"), printing, geography and carography. He concludes with a comparison of science and technology in Korea and Japan, and with a discussion of important scientists active in the Choson Period. The book is filled with new information and arguments, and frequently with deep insights. Much of what the author says will be useful for professional scholars in the history of science and technology and for general historians as well, as it provides topics for academic debate and fruitful research subjects for young scholars. the lavish illustrations support the writer's thesis and are themselves part of Korea's rich artistic heritage.
Singapore experiences substantial changes during the 14-year tenure of the country's second Prime Minister, Goh Chok Tong (1990-2004). Coming after a long period of growth and stability, the period brought to office a new generation of political leaders who faced the task of sustaining and building the policies of their predecessors. There were social and cultural initiatives and significant challenges to the economy arising from the Asian financial crisis of 1998 and the SARS outbreak in 2003. This volume examines the changes that took place during the Goh premiership and assesses its legacy. The 45 essays collected in this volume review a range of issues from domestic politics and foreign policy to economic development, society, culture, the arts and media.
International and Intra-national Exploration
At the Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Declaration setting out a series of Millennium Development Goals. "MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability" included the target of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. This volume looks at access in terms of five key components and integrates them into the Index of Drinking Water Adequacy — IDWA for short. The substantive papers comprise international and intranational explorations based on IDWA estimates. Globally, IDWA estimates for 144 economies, have strong correlations with Human Development and Human Poverty Indexes and thus affirms the importance of investment in safe drinking water.
Islam, Gender and Networks in Post-Suharto Indonesia
In an important social change, female Muslim political leaders in Java have enjoyed considerable success in direct local elections following the fall of Suharto in Indonesia. Indonesian Women and Local Politics shows that Islam, gender, and social networks have been decisive in their political victories. Islamic ideas concerning female leadership provide a strong religious foundation for their political campaigns. However, their approach to women's issues shows that female leaders do not necessarily adopt a woman's perspectives when formulating policies. This new trend of Muslim women in politics will continue to shape the growth and direction of democratization in local politics in post-Suharto Indonesia and will color future discourse on gender, politics, and Islam in contemporary Southeast Asia.
IWP Staff Papers 2011 is the first volume of an annual series showcasing innovative research papers from the staff and associates of the Institute of Water Policy (IWP) at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (NUS). This volume contains six research papers and four case studies on various water and sanitation related topics, such as national water policy reviews, water utility performances, water and sanitation data evaluation, rural and urban water supply, and business models for sanitation provision.
Reading Post-Conflict Landscapes in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
The Second and Third Indochina Wars are the subject of important ongoing scholarship, but there has been little research on the lasting impact of wartime violence on local societies and populations, in Vietnam as well as in Laos and Cambodia. Today’s Lao, Vietnamese and Cambodian landscapes bear the imprint of competing violent ideologies and their perilous material manifestations. From battlefields and massively bombed terrain to reeducation camps and resettled villages, the past lingers on in the physical environment. The nine essays in this volume discuss post-conflict landscapes as contested spaces imbued with memory-work conveying differing interpretations of the recent past, expressed through material (even, monumental) objects, ritual performances, and oral narratives (or silences). While Cambodian, Lao and Vietnamese landscapes are filled with tenacious traces of a violent past, creating an unsolicited and malevolent sense of place among their inhabitants, they can in turn be transformed by actions of resilient and resourceful local communities.
Monument, Image and Text
Interpreting Southeast Asia's Past: Monument, Image and Text contains 31 papers read at the 10th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists. The authors present new research on monumental arts, sculpture and painting, epigraphy and heritage management across mainland Southeast Asia adn as far south as Indonesia. New monumental arts research includes papers focused on the enduring enigma of the Bayon of Angkor, as well as material on the great brick temple sites of the state of Champa, neighbors of the ancient Khmers. The sacred art of Burma, Thailand and southern China incites new analysis of sculpture and painting including the first study of the few surviving Saiva images in Burma. The collection includes an account of a spectacular find of bronze Mahayana Buddhas, an analysis of the sculpted bronzes of the Dian culture, and an assessment of the purpose of making and erecting sacred sculptures in the ancient world. Ancient Khmer materials, including recently discovered Cambodian ceramic kiln sites, are the main focus of new research on craft goods and crafting techniques that treat the source, dating and adoption of amalgam gilding among Khmer craft specialists; the sandstone sources of major Khmer sculptures; and the rare remaining traces of paint, plaster and stucco on Khmer stone and brick buildings. More widely distributed goods also receive attention, including Southeast Asian glass beads. There are also contributions to Southeast Asian heritage and conservatioin, including research on Angkor as a living World Heritage site, and discussion of a UNESCO project on the stone jars of the Plain of Jars in Laos that combines recording, safeguarding, bomb clearance, and eco-tourism development.
Writing and Regionalism in Modern Thailand
Regional characteristics and regional language feature prominently in discussions of Thai identity, but there is little mention of regional literatures. In northeastern Thailand’s Isan region, authors write primarily in Thai, but it is possible nonetheless to identify an Isan literature, which played a significant and at times pivotal role in the development of Thai literature in the second half of the 20th century, as authors grappled with how their origins and experiences related to the Thai centre. Martin Platt’s account of Isan literature is an important first step toward a broader study of regional literatures in Thailand, and shapes a model that has relevance for examining literary works in other Asian countries.
A Political Biography of Mohammad Natsir
As Indonesia's leading Muslim politician in the second half of the 20th century, Mohammad atsir (1980-1993) went from heading the country's first post-independence government and largest Islamic political party to spending years in rebellion and in jail under the Soekarno regime. After initially welcoming Soekarno's overthrow in 1965, he became one of the most outspoken critics of the successor Suharto government's increasingly autocratic rule. Natsir's copious writings stretch from his student days in the late colonial period, when his debates with Soekarno over the character of Indonesian nationalism first attracted public attention, to the years immediately preceding his death when his trenchant criticisms brought him the enmity of the Suharto regime. They reveal a man struggling to harmonize his deep Islamic faith with his equally firm belief in national independence and democracy. Drawing from a wide range of materials, including these writings and extensive interviews with the subject, this political biography of Natsir places the important Muslim politician and thinker in the context of a critical period of Indonesia's history, and describes his vision of how a newly independent country could embrace religion without sacrificing its democratic values.