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Artificial Intelligence under Criminal Law
The growing use of artificial intelligence (AI) software and robots in the commercial, industrial, military, medical, and personal spheres has triggered a broad conversation about human relationships with these entities. There is a deep and common concern in modern society about AI technology and the ability of existing social and legal arrangements to cope with it. What are the legal ramifications if an AI software program or robotic entity causes harm? Although AI and robotics are making their way into everyday modern life, there is little comprehensive analysis about assessing liability for robots, machines, or software that exercise varying degrees of autonomy.
Gabriel Hallevy develops a general and legally sophisticated theory of the criminal liability for AI and robotics that covers the manufacturer, programmer, user, and all other entities involved. Identifying and selecting analogous principles from existing criminal law, Hallevy proposes specific ways of thinking through criminal liability for a diverse array of autonomous technologies in a diverse set of circumstances.
Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, Elizabeth Bishop, Stanley Kunitz & Others
A memoir of a famous poetry circle In 1959 Kathleen Spivack won a fellowship to study at Boston University with Robert Lowell. Her fellow students were Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton, among others. Thus began a relationship with the famous poet and his circle that would last to the end of his life in 1977 and beyond. Spivack presents a lovingly rendered story of her time among some of the most esteemed artists of a generation. Part memoir, part loose collection of anecdotes, artistic considerations, and soulful yet clear-eyed reminiscences of a lost time and place, hers is an intimate portrait of the often suffering Lowell, the great and near great artists he attracted, his teaching methods, his private world, and the significant legacy he left to his students. Through the story of a youthful artist finding her poetic voice among literary giants, Spivack thoughtfully considers how poets work. She looks at friendships, addiction, despair, perseverance and survival, and how social changes altered lives and circumstances. This is a beautifully written portrait of friends who loved and lived words, and made great beauty together. A touching and deeply revealing look into the lives and thoughts of some of the most influential artists of the twentieth century, With Robert Lowell and His Circle will appeal to writers, students, and thoughtful literary readers, as well as to scholars.
Does She Call It Rape?
A woman raping another woman is unthinkable. This is not how women behave, society tells us. Our legal system is not equipped to handle woman-to-woman sexual assault, our women's services do not have the resources or even the words to reach out to its victims, and our lesbian and gay communities face hurdles in acknowledging its existence. Already dealing with complex issues related to their sexual identities, and frequently overwhelmed by shame, lesbian and bisexual survivors of such violence are among the most isolated of crime victims.
In a work that is sure to stir controversy, Lori B. Girshick exposes the shocking, hidden reality of woman-to-woman sexual violence and gives voice to the abused. Drawing on a nationwide survey and in-depth interviews, Girshick explores the experiences and reflections of seventy women, documenting what happened to them, how they responded, and whether they received any help to cope with the emotional impact of their assault. The author discusses how the lesbian community has silenced survivors of sexual violence due to myths of lesbian utopia, and considers what role societal homophobia, biphobia, and heterosexism has played in this silencing. Ranging from date and acquaintance rape, to domestic sexual abuse by partners, to sexual harassment in the workplace, these explicit and harrowing stories provide a fuller understanding of woman-to-woman sexual violence than exists anywhere else.
This provocative book offers much-needed insights on a subject rarely discussed in the literature on domestic violence, and it does so with compassion. Above all, it recommends how agencies can best provide services, outreach, and treatment to survivors of woman-to-woman rape and lesbian battering, using suggestions by the survivors themselves.
A Documentary Reader
A spectacular transformation in women's sports has occurred over the past century in colleges, high schools, and recreational leagues across the nation. Gradual changes during the late 1950s and 1960s within the fields of women's physical education and amateur sport provided the initial energy for this transformation. But it took the rebirth of a grassroots feminist movement in the late 1960s and 1970s to catalyze the radical changes in women's athletic opportunities and attitudes toward female athletes. The assimilation of feminist principles into the broader popular culture solidified the belief that sport plays a positive role in the lives of girls and women. Political activists for women's rights codified this attitude with the passage of Title IX of the 1972 Federal Education Amendments, a law banning gender discrimination in educational settings, thus guaranteeing women's legal right to an equitable share of athletic opportunities and resources.
Though the sea change in American women's sports is evident in schools, the media, and local playing fields, scholars are still in the early stages of fully examining the causes and impacts of this historic change. Women and Sports in the United States brings together scholarly articles, journalism, political and legal documents, and first-person accounts that collectively explore women's sports in America, with emphasis on the post-Title IX era.
This book was published with the generous support of the Center for the Study of Sport in Society at Northeastern University.
A Feminist Critique of Community Programs and Services
So far there has been very limited research on the effectiveness of gender-responsive as compared to traditional supervision of women felons on probation and parole. This volume, based on extensive longitudinal, qualitative data from probation and parole officers and from in-depth interviews with the women themselves, fills this gap.
Merry Morash has based her study on data from two counties in the same state that differed markedly in their approaches to supervision. Gender Responsive County emphasized identifying and meeting a wide range of needs unique or common to women offenders. Traditional County emphasized compliance with rules and similar treatment for women and men. Within this comparative frame, Morash discusses life issues of women offenders, including dangerous places where they live, relationships with partners and children, and reliance on a mix of criminal and prosocial support networks. She documents change and demonstrates how a dedicated and innovative team of probation and parole officers apply a gender-responsive approach to produce positive outcomes for women addicted to drugs or dependent on destructive and abusive partners.
Readings in Feminist Criminology
Through the lens of feminist criminology, this volume examines the complex interrelationship of women, violence, and media presentations. The book is divided into three sections. The first, "Gendering Constructions," lays the groundwork for the volume by examining the print media's presentation of gendered violence, female killers on Law and Order, African American women in Hollywood films, and women in media, crime, and violence textbooks. The second section, "Debating the Issues," explores aspects of femicide, including mass murder incidents, domestic violence in Bangladesh, and wartime sexual violence in reality and on television. The final section "Changing the Image," focuses on efforts to replace masculine assumptions with constructive approaches to imagining women.
Designed for course adoption, Women, Violence, and the Media emphasizes the key themes and critical skills required for media literacy, and the volume offers guidelines for readers on conducting their own research.