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An Interpretation with Commentary
The question of the political relevance of philosophy, and of the role which the philosopher should play in the government of his state, was often discussed in Antiquity. Plato’s ideal of the philosopher-king is well-known, but was precisely his failure to realise his political ideal in Syracuse not the best argument against the philosopher’s political engagement? Nevertheless, Plato’s ideal remained attractive for later Greek thinkers. This is illustrated, for instance, by one of Plutarch’s short political works, in which he tries to demonstrate that the philosopher should especially associate with powerful rulers, because he can in this way exert the greatest positive influence on his society and at the same time maximise his personal pleasure. This study provides a thorough analysis of Plutarch’s Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse disserendum. A lengthy general introduction deals with the author and the text and discusses each step in Plutarch’s argumentation in detail. A systematic lemmatic commentary then provides a systematic complement to the previous analysis of the work, dealing with many problems of textual criticism, explaining all kinds of realia, and discussing a great number of passages through parallels from Plutarch’s own oeuvre and from other authors.
The Dynamics of Religious Reform in Northern Europe, 1780-1920
Before the last quarter of the eighteenth century there was a generally clear and remarkably uniform pattern of church-state relationships across Europe. In the course of the nineteenth century this firm alliance between political and religious establishments broke down. Religious pluralism developed everywhere, though at different speeds, requiring church and state to reach fresh solutions. This volume Political and Legal Perspectives highlights the impact of broad political change, ‘democratization', on the question of religious reform, in Northern Europe. Competing political parties expressed contrasting views about whether ‘the state' should be ‘neutral' or whether it should give particular support to one or other churches. It is hardly surprising that there was no simple ‘one fits it all' solution. Some countries were multi-confessional where others were still in some sense confessional. This volume shows a set of problems and circumstances which were often common but which led to outcomes which were, and to an extent still remain, ‘different'. The research focus of this book is historical but how ‘the state' deals with ‘the church' (and ‘the church' with ‘the state') continues to be a live and pressing public issue in a multi-confessional and multi-faith European Union.
The Paradoxes of American Literary History
Drawing from the social theories of Niklas Luhmann and Mary Douglas, Predicting the Past advocates a reflexive understanding of the paradoxical institutional dynamic of American literary history as a professional discipline and field of study. Contrary to most disciplinary accounts, Michael Boyden resists the utopian impulse to offer supposedly definitive solutions for the legitimation crises besetting American literature studies by “going beyond” its inherited racist, classist, and sexist underpinnings. Approaching the existence of the American literary tradition as a typically modern problem generating diverse but functionally equivalent solutions, Boyden argues how its peculiarity does not, as is often supposed, reside in its restrictive exclusivity but rather in its massive inclusivity which drives it to constantly revert to a self-negating “beyond” perspective. Predicting the Past covers a broad range of both well-known and lesser known literary histories and reference works, from Rufus Griswold’s 1847 Prose Writers of America to Sacvan Bercovitch’s monumental Cambridge History of American Literature. Throughout, Boyden focuses on particular themes and topics illustrating the selfinduced complexity of American literary history such as the early “Anglocentric” roots theories of American literature; the debate on contemporary authors in the age of naturalism; the plurilingual ethnocentrism of the pioneer Americanists of the mid-twentieth century; and the genealogical misrepresentation of founding figures such as Jonathan Edwards, Emily Dickinson, and Robert Lowell.
The capacity to mount stone tools in or on a handle is considered an important innovation in past human behaviour. The insight to assemble two different materials (organic and inorganic) into a better functioning entity indicates the presence of the required mental capacity and technological expertise. Although the identification of stone tool use based on microscopic analysis was introduced in the 1960s, distinguishing between hand-held and hafted tool use has remained a more difficult issue. This volume introduces a methodology, based on a systematic, in-depth study of prehension and hafting traces on experimental stone artefacts, which allows their recognition in archaeological assemblages. The author proposes a number of distinctive macro- and microscopic wear traits for identifying hand-held and hafted stone tools and for identifying the exact hafting arrangement. Tested hafting arrangements vary according to the articulation between stone tool and handle, and to the raw materials and fixation agents used. Tool uses include various motions and worked materials. This largely experimental investigation concludes in a blind testing of the reliability of the method itself, showing that a wider application of the designed method has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of technological changes and evolutions and past human behaviour.
The Sigmund Freud Museum Symposia 2009-2011
In this volume renowned experts in psychoanalysis reflect on the relationship between psychoanalysis and religion, in particular presenting various controversial interpretations of the question if and to what extent monotheism semantically and structurally fits psychoanalytic insights.
Henrico de Gandavo adscriptae
In the process of completing his critical edition of Marcus of Orvieto’s Liber de Moralitatibus, Dr. Girard J. Etzkorn happened upon a set of questions attributed to Henry of Ghent at the end of Rome’s Bibliotheca Angelica codex 750. These questions are edited in this volume under the proviso ‘attributed to’ so that scholars may compare the texts with other works of the Ghentian master known to be authentic. Based upon some intitial comparisons Etzkorn concludes that the ten questions appear to be of two literary genres. The first six are best fitted into the category of Disputed Questions while Questions seven to ten are better characterized as Quodlibetal questions given their relative brevity and small number of objections ‘pro’ and ‘contra’. Moreover, the ten questions seem to be ‘selected’ questions and were not likely disputed at the same time. Future investigations are essential to find out if the questions may indeed be attributed to Henry himself or whether they have been written by one of Henry’s disciples who was ‘copying’ the thoughts and words of the master.
Studies in Renaissance Music in Honour of Ignace Bossuyt
After a distinguished career of more than 35 years, Ignace Bossuyt retired as professor at the Musicology Department of the University of Leuven on October 1st 2007. As an internationally recognised leader in the field of later-16th-century music, Bossuyt consolidated the department’s reputation as a centre of excellence in renaissance music studies. Articles in this volume deal with music from the period on which the dedicatee focussed his own research. Subjects discussed include newly discovered music by Philippe de Monte and Heinrich Isaac, humour in the motets of Orlando di Lasso, the beginnings of music history, compositional procedures in renaissance music, and Tinctoris’s art of listening. A wide range of methodological perspectives is offered, including historiography, reception studies, source studies, music analysis, music theory, style studies, and aesthetics of music. The publication is both a Festschrift in which distinguished specialists honour an outstanding colleague, and a Liber Amicorum compiled for a dear friend.
The German Army in Belgium, August 1914
Rehearsals is the first book to provide a detailed narrative history of the German invasion of Belgium in August 1914 as it affected civilians. Based on extensive eyewitness testimony, the book chronicles events in and around the towns of Liège, Aarschot, Andenne, Tamines, Dinant, and Leuven, where the worst of the German depredations occurred. Without any legitimate pretext, German soldiers killed nearly 6,000 non-combatants, including women and children, and burned some 25,000 homes and other buildings. For more the seventy-five years, however, charges against the German Army about the killing, raping, looting, and arson have been dismissed in Germany, the U.K., and U.S. as mere atrocity propaganda. Recently, the case has been made that the violence, which cresendoed between august 19th and 26th , was the result of an spontaneous outbreak of German paranoia about francs-tireurs (civilian sharpshooters). Rehearsals provides much evidence that the executions were in fact part of a deliberate campaign of terrorism ordered by military authorisaties.
Public Finance in Belgium over 2000-2010
An in-depth analysis of Belgium's public finance in the recent past Prior to the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008 Belgium's fiscal balances and debt ratios seemed to be on a firm consolidation path. Today, however, Belgium is facing a major budgetary challenge, albeit to some extent lesser than that of other European countries. A proper understanding of the current situation and the design of the most appropriate policy response always benefit from an in-depth analysis of the recent past. This book offers that closer look at the evolution of public finance in Belgium over the decade 2000-2010. The Return of the Deficit presents a collection of original essays written by the best public finance scholars in Belgium. It covers Belgium's macroeconomic environment, its budgetary policy, changes to the tax system and social security, the evolution of public expenditure, debt management, and fiscal federalism. This is the seventh volume in the authoritative series History of Public Finance in Belgium published under the auspices of the Belgian Institute of Public Finance. It is introduced with a foreword by Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council.
Secundair geschiedenisonderwijs in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden, 1750-1850
Verrassend portret van de politieke debatten en didactische praktijk in het eerste geschiedenisonderwijs. Tussen 1750 en 1850 vormden de Zuidelijke Nederlanden het toneel van verschillende politieke omwentelingen. De Oostenrijkse, Franse revolutionaire, Napoleontische, Hollandse en Belgische bestuurders volgden elkaar in een snel tempo op. In het kader van de beoogde bestuurlijke centralisatie, stond het onderwijs tijdens deze regimewissels telkens bovenaan de politieke agenda. Vooral over het curriculum voor het secundair onderwijs werd hevig gediscussieerd. Revoluties in de klas gaat uitvoerig in op deze debatten, en laat zien hoe het vak geschiedenis vorm kreeg en tegelijkertijd ingang vond in het secundair onderwijs. Centraal staat de vraag hoe de opeenvolgende politieke revoluties de didactiek en inhoud van het vroegste geschiedenisonderwijs hertekenden. Matthias Meirlaen schetst een rijk beeld van niet enkel de politieke debatten, maar ook van de verhalen en praktijken in het vroegste geschiedenisonderwijs van de Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Hij laat zien hoe oude didactische gebruiken voortleefden, wijst op de subtiele betekenisverschuivingen in de historische beeldvorming, en brengt de vaak verrassende persoonlijke invulling van leraren in de praktijk aan het licht. De lezer krijgt zo een geschakeerd zicht op de veelvormige dynamiek die het geschiedenisonderwijs tijdens de periode van de revoluties kenmerkte.