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Throughout the Ancien Régime, mythology played a vital role in opera, defining such epoch-making works as Claudio Monteverdi's La favola d'Orfeo (1607) and Christoph Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride (1779). The operatic presence of the Greco-Roman gods and heroes was anything but unambiguous or unproblematic, however. (Dis)embodying Myths in Ancien Régime Opera highlights myth's chameleonic life in the Italian dramma per musica and French tragédie en musique of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Written by eminent scholars in the fields of music, literature, theatre, and cultural studies, the six essays in this book address important questions. Through what ideological lenses did the Ancien Régime perceive an ancient legacy that was fundamentally pagan and fictitious, as opposed to Christian and rationalistic? What dramaturgies did librettists and composers devise to adapt mythical topics to altering philosophical and esthetic doctrines? Were the ancients' precepts obeyed or precisely overridden by the age of ‘classicism'? And how could myths be made to fit changing modes of spectatorship? Enlightening and wide-ranging on an essentially multidisciplinary development in European culture, (Dis)embodying Myths in Ancien Régime Opera will appeal to all music, literature, and art lovers seeking to deepen their knowledge of an increasingly popular repertoire.
NS-taal en de Shoah
De uitroeiing van de Europese joden is het symbool geworden van de moderne, gebureaucratiseerde massamoord. Als geen ander historisch thema heeft de judeocide ons gedwongen om na te denken over de vraag welke factoren aan de grondslag liggen van dit soort georganiseerde brutaliteit - een vraag die nog steeds op een bevredigend antwoord wacht. Doodgewone woorden benadert de Shoah vanuit een verrassende, nieuwe invalshoek. In een vlot leesbare stijl beschrijft Fabian Van Samang de typische kenmerken van de nazitaal en beargumenteert hij hoe dit specifieke NS-discours mee aan de basis lag van de ontwikkeling van de Shoah. Hij brengt inzichten uit de psychologie, geschiedenis, filosofie en taalkunde op subtiele wijze samen. Sleuteldocumenten worden in een nieuw licht geplaatst, bestaande interpretaties worden getoetst en het besluitvormingsproces wordt opnieuw bekeken. Doodgewone woorden is een gewaagd en uitdagend boek dat de lezer er ongetwijfeld zal toe aanzetten zichzelf, zijn omgeving en zijn taal kritisch te bevragen.
Four Contemporary Perspectives on the Mozart/Da Ponte Operas
The three Mozart/Da Ponte operas offer an inexhaustible wellspring for critical reflection, possessing a complexity and equivocation common to all great humane works. They have the potential to reflect and refract whatever locus of contemporaneity may be the starting point for enquiry. Thus, even postmodern and postmillennial concerns, far from seeming irrelevant to these operas, are instead given new perspectives by them, whilst the music and the dramatic situations have the multivalency to accept each refreshed pallet of interpretation without loss of their essential character. These operas seem perennially ‘new'. In exploring the evergreen qualities of Don Giovanni and Le Nozze di Figaro, this collection of studies does not shun approaches that have foundations in established theory, but refracts them through such problems as the tension between operatic tradition and psychological realism, the co-existence of multiple yet equal plots, and the antagonism between the tenets of tradition and the need for self-actualization. In exploring such themes, the authors not only illuminate new aspects of Mozart's operatic compositions, but also probe the nature of musical analysis itself.
The essays in this collection all illustrate the vitality of Neo-Latin drama in early modern Europe, arising from its productive combination of classical models with deep-rooted vernacular traditions. While the plays were often composed in the context of a school or university setting, the dramatists seldom neglected the need to appeal to a broad audience, including non-Latinists. Yet the use of Latin, and the ambiguity of a plurivocal literary form, allowed the authors of these plays to introduce messages and ideas which could be subversive of the prevailing political and religious authorities. At the same time, humanist colleges, and their Jesuit successors, were quick to see the educational advantages to be derived from staging plays performed by pupils, which had the advantage of acting as powerful advertisements for the schools. Neo-Latin drama in all its forms offered a freedom of expression and form which is rare in other Renaissance literary genres.
Reflections on the Study of Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages - Réflexions sur l'étude du monachismeau moyen âge central
The role of monastic institutions in society during the Central Middle Ages has been much debated in medieval studies. Some scholars saw monasticism as the principal motivator of economic, social, intellectual and ‘spiritual' progress in human society, while others regarded monastic ideology as fundamentally anti-social and oriented towards itself. These debates seem to have lost some of their relevance to the present-day scholar. Today monasticism is studied as a social entity which needed interactions with the outside world, not only to subsist in a physical sense, but also to give a clear sense of purpose to its members. Drawing on recent trends in historical scholarship, this volume seeks to identify some of the major questions that will dominate research into monasticism in the years to come. Contributions deal with the evolution of monasticism itself, its links with aristocracy, the economic relations of religious communities and their physical and ideological boundaries, and the representation of the outside world in monastic manuscripts.
Management, Finances and Patrimony of Religious Orders and Congregations in Europe, 1773 - ca. 1930 / Gestion, finances et patrimoine des ordres et congregations en Europe, 1773 - ca. 1930
During the French Revolution almost all monasteries and abbeys were suppressed and their possessions seized. Yet after the French Revolution many religious institutes were very successful in re-establishing themselves, sometimes accumulating large patrimonies, against the background of often hostile political forces. This book deals with the question of how the religious orders and congregations rebuilt their patrimony, a necessary prerequisite for the growth of the number of religious, educational and charitable services. The authors discuss the (real or supposed) wealth, the financial structures, and the management and juridical foundations of the orders and congregations in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Ireland, and the United Kingdom from the late eighteenth century to the 1930s.
Travel Diary of Raymond Buyse, 1922. Carnet de voyage de Raymond Buyse, 1922.
In 1922, a young Belgian ‘pedologist' named Raymond Buyse accompanied the famous Dr. Ovide Decroly on a study tour of the United States of America. They met with well-known American professors to learn more about the ‘scientific' study of the child and especially about applied American psychology. Buyse noted his impressions of the trip in a diary. These are scribbles, sometimes difficult to decipher, written on loose sheets, held together by a ring binder. They reflect the culture shock experienced by Buyse in confronting this dazzling nation. The young scholar writes in a lively style and with humour about his meetings with the ‘great' psychologists and educationalists of that time, visualizing his impressions of the land and the people with little drawings in the text. Here the record of this fascinating scholarly and cultural encounter is published for the first time, both in the original French with an English translation. In their exhaustive introduction Marc Depaepe and Lieven D'hulst explain the historical context of this both personal and intellectual journey to the present-day reader.
La dottrina dei minimi nell'Epicureismo
The first monograph entirely devoted to the Epicurean doctrine of minimal parts. The Epicurean doctrine of minimal parts (ta elachista) is a crucial aspect of Epicurus's philosophy and a genuine turning point compared to the ancient atomism of Leucippus and Democritus. This book consists of three chapters: a philological and theoretical analysis of the primary sources (Epicurus and Lucretius) of the doctrine, a reconstruction of its likely historical background (Xenocrates, Aristotle, Diodorus Cronus), and a close examination of the chiefly geometrical development of this theory within the philosophical school of Epicurus. The critical examination of ancient sources (including several Herculaneum Papyri), combined with a careful analysis of the secondary literature, reveals the very significant role played by minimal parts within the Epicurean science of nature. This is the first monograph entirely devoted to the study of this important doctrine in all its historical and theoretical breadth. Questo volume esamina la dottrina epicurea dei minimi (ta elachista) che rappresenta un nodo cruciale della filosofia di Epicuro e un autentico punto di svolta rispetto all'atomismo di Leucippo e Democrito. Il libro è organizzato in tre capitoli dedicati rispettivamente: (1) all'analisi filologica e teorica delle fonti primarie (Epicuro e Lucrezio), (2) alla ricostruzione del contesto storico-filosofico a cui la dottrina dei minimi verosimilmente fa riferimento (Senocrate, Aristotele e Diodoro Crono), e, infine, (3) all'approfondimento dello sviluppo della teoria dei minimi in ambito prevalentemente geometrico all'interno della scuola di Epicuro. L'esame critico delle fonti antiche (che riguardano anche alcuni Papiri Ercolanesi), anche attraverso l'attenta analisi della letteratura secondaria, conferma il ruolo decisivo giocato dai minimi nella scienza della natura epicurea. Si tratta della prima monografia interamente consacrata allo studio di questa significativa dottrina in tutta la sua ampiezza storica e teorica.
Current Developments in Russian State Identity and Institutional Reform under President Putin
Since President Putin came to power, Russia's domestic political process underwent continuous changes. Up till now it remains unclear whether Russia is on the road towards becoming a fullfledged democracy or if it is diverting from this path. Elusive Russia brings together the views of four leading Russia experts on Russian state identity and institutional reform. Marie Mendras, Luke March, Irina Busygina and Andrei Zakharov share their original approaches on some key components of today's russian politics and bring their own perspective to the complex and ongoing process of Russia's nation and state building. They address urgent questions that relate to Russia's post-Soviet democratization process. In which way has the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of power been developing? How has Russia conceptualized itself as a federal state? How strong is the nationalist component in today's Russian politics? Which concept of the Rule of Law finds its resonance in Russia's state structures? Although Russia seems to remain an elusive entity according to the concepts of Western political sciences, this volume aims to shed some light on the ongoing political developments by offering a 'status questionis'.
Apport à la compréhension de la variabilité passée des hommes modernes
The study of modern human origin, variation and behaviour focused mainly on two distinct periods: the oxygen isotopic stages OIS 6 and 5e with the oldest anatomically modern human remains from Africa and the Middle East and the oxygen isotopic stages 2 and 1 with the expansion of modern humans all over the world. Currently, genetic studies agree to consider that extant human populations reflect only a restricted part of past modern human diversity. One of the key periods to try to understand the complex evolution of Homo sapiens is the oxygen isotopic stage 3. However, few complete human remains are known for this period which limits the knowledge of the Upper Pleistocene modern human variation. The Nazlet Khater 2 (NK 2) human remains represent the oldest OIS 3 complete modern human skeleton from Northern Africa. It was discovered in 1980 near Tahta in Upper Egypt by the Belgian Middle Egypt Prehistoric Project (BMEPP). This specimen, voluntarily buried, is associated to the Nazlet Khater 4 chert mining site whose exploitation period ranged from 40 to 35 Kyr BP. The Nazlet Khater 2 skeleton is complete and belongs to a young adult male. It is well preserved with the exception of the distal part of the legs and the feet. Morphological and biometrical comparative analyses of this specimen underline the complex morphology of modern humans from this time period. NK 2 exhibits several retained archaic features notably on the face and the mandible. The set of particular labyrinthine traits identified on NK 2 inner ear distinguished it partially from extant humans. Its postcranial remains are characterized by strong muscular insertions. Cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones show adaptations to high biomechanical strengths. Furthermore, Nazlet Khater 2 has vertebral and membral lesions which are unusual for such a young specimen and might be related to intensive mining activities. The study of this specimen provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of modern human variation during this time period (OIS 3) for which few human remains are known.