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Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries
In the mid-nineteenth century, when the idea of religion as a private matter connected to the home and the female sphere won acceptance among the bourgeois elite, Christian religious practices began to be associated with femininity and soft values. Contemporary critics claimed that religion was incompatible with true manhood, and today's scholars talk about a feminisation of religion. But was this really the case? What expression did male religious faith take at a time when Christianity was losing its status as the foundation of society? This is the starting point for the research presented in Christian Masculinity. Here we meet Catholic and Protestant men struggling with and for their Christian faith as priests, missionaries, and laymen, as well as ideas and reflections on Christian masculinity in media, fiction, and correspondence of various kinds. Some men engaged in social and missionary work, or strove to harness the masculine combative spirit to Christian ends, while others were eager to show the male character of Christian virtues. This book not only illustrates the importance of religion for the understanding of gender construction, but also the need to take into consideration confessional and institutional aspects of religious identity.
The Dynamics of Religious Reform in Northern Europe, 1780-1920
Developments in church-state relationships in north-western Europe between 1780 and 1920 had a substantial impact on reformist ideas, projects and movements within the churches. Conversely, the dynamics of ecclesiastical reform prompted the state itself to react in various ways, through direct intervention or by adapting its policies and/or promulgating laws. To which extent did church and state mutually influence each other in matters concerning ecclesiastical reform? How and why did they do so? These are the central questions posed in The Churches, the second volume in the series ‘Dynamics of Religious Reform'. The volume concentrates on the reforms generated by the churches themselves and on their response to the political and legal reforms initiated by the state. It shows how processes of church reform evolved differently in different countries. The position and role of organised religion in the modern state is a matter of continual debate. This volume offers historical insight into the enduring but sometimes uneasy relationship between church and secular authority.
De latenter vivendo
Plutarch's De latenter vivendo is the only extant work from Antiquity in which Epicurus' famous ideal of an 'unnoticed life' (lathe biosas) is thematised as such. Moreover, the short rhetorical work provides a lot of interesting information about Plutarch's polemical strategies and about his own philosophical convictions in the domains of ethics, politics, metaphysics, and eschatology. In this book, Plutarch's anti-Epicurean polemic is understood against the background of the previous philosophical tradition. An examination of Epicurus' own position is followed by a discussion of Plutarch's polemical predecessors (Timocrates, Cicero, the early Stoics, and Seneca) and contemporaries (Epictetus), and by a systematical and detailed analysis of Plutarch's own arguments. The lemmatic commentary offers additional information and parallel passages (both from Plutarch's own works and from others authors) that cast a new light on the text.
A thought provoking book to deploy the integration of cultures as a source of welfare and tolerance in a glocalising world
As globalisation makes the visual distinction between North and South, East and West disappear, one definitely needs a compass. It still points to magnetic North. For the moment. This book focuses on the added value created by interculturality which is the interaction, exchange and integration between people of different cultures. The reflexions are aimed at profit and non-profit organisations who have the ambition to be enriched and strengthened by their cultural diversity. This publication states and illustrates; personal views seek to inspire. The outlines in this book are now a guiding principle for the Living Stone Centre of Competence for Intercultural Entrepreneurship (LSC), a cooperation between the K.U.Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven), Joker Toerisme SA and Cera.
“Love is joy with the accompanying idea of an external cause.” Spinoza’s definition of love (Ethics Book 3, Prop. LIX) manifests a major paradigm shift achieved by seventeenth century Europe in which the emotions, formerly seen as normative “forces of nature,” were embraced by the new science of the mind. We are determined to volition by causes. This shift has often been seen as a transition from a philosophy laden with implicit values and assumptions to a more scientific and value-free way of understanding human action. But is this rational approach really value-free? Today we incline to believe that values are inescapable, and that the descriptive-mechanical method implies its own set of values. Yet the assertion by Spinoza, Malebranche, Leibniz, and Enlightenment thinkers that love guides us to wisdom—and even that the love of a God who creates and maintains order and harmony in the world forms the core of ethical behaviour—still resonates powerfully with us. It is, evidently, an idea we are unwilling to relinquish. This collection of insightful essays emerged from two “ContactFora” organized within the framework of the research project Actuality of the Enlightenment: The Moral Science of Emotions, conducted under the auspices of Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgie voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten. It offers a range of important and fascinating perspectives on how the triumph of “reason” affected not only our scientific-philosophical understanding of the emotions and especially of love, but our everyday understanding as well.
The Peace Treaty of Münster (1648) and the Political Culture of the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Monarchy
The Peace of Münster, signed between the Catholic Monarchy and the United Provinces in 1648, went against the political culture of both polities. The fact that the Spanish Monarchy definitively accepted the independence of its former subjects clearly negated the policy put forward by the Monarchy during the ‘eighty' years that the war lasted and to the Monarchy's declared main goals. For the United Provinces, signing a peace with the archenemy without having brought liberty and religious freedom to ten of the seventeen provinces that formed part of the ancient Burgundian circle was also considered by important groups in the ‘rebel' provinces as a defection. Portraying the political culture of both the Catholic Monarchy and the United Provinces, this work analyses the views held in both territories concerning the points which were discussed in pamphlets and treatises published during the peace negotiations. It also traces the origin of the arguments presented, showing how they were transformed during the period under study, and discusses their influence, or presence, in the diplomatic negotiations among the ambassadors of the United Provinces and the Catholic Monarchy in the German town of Münster. These discussions are inserted in the wider framework of a Christian realm that had to reassess its own values as a consequence of the confessionalisation process and the Thirty Years' War, which affected not only the Empire but, in one way or another, all Central and Western Europe.
Koloniale cultuur in de metropool
België schiep Congo, maar schiep Congo ook België? In hoeverre werd het 20ste-eeuwse België voor een stuk gevormd door zijn kolonie? Die vraag stelde de toonaangevende Congolese historicus Isidore Ndaywel enige jaren geleden. Deze interdisciplinaire bundel biedt een antwoord. Hij belicht de invloed van de kolonie op de Belgische cultuur en samenleving, van hoog tot laag. Want kolonialisme is geen eenrichtingsverkeer. In Tervuren, bij nationale optochten en in klaslokalen zie je hoe Congo België mee inkleurde. Maar ook in de politiek, de media en de kunsten. Het gaat evengoed om de nesteling van Congo in de massacultuur van missieverhalen en speelfims, in de samenstelling van Belgische gezinnen of in de herinneringen van gewone mensen aan de voormalige kolonie. Het boek vormt zo een kaleidoscoop van het verschil dat Congo – en de Congolezen – maakten in de Belgische geschiedenis.
Efficiency and effectiveness in ‘education economics’. Economists are well placed to study education. They are intrinsically interested in (public) spending. They want to examine whether resources are spent in an effective (i.e., doing the right things) and efficient (i.e., doing things right) way. By focusing on educational efficiency, economists can provide intuitive insights that engender more value for money. Moreover, the effectiveness concerns are related to the ‘evidence-based education’ idea. Contemporary Economic Perspectives in Education contributes to this growing field of ‘education economics’. This book provides a detailed approach to how economists treat earlier evidence, how they avoid measurement problems, and how they measure efficiency. Applications covered include the underperformance of boys, efficiency and equity in education, and inter-industry wage differentials in the health sector.
Nineteenth-Century Anglophone Literature in the Low Countries
Crossing Cultures brings together scholars in the field of reception and translation studies to chart the individual and institutional agencies that determined the reception of Anglophone authors in the Dutch and Belgian literary fields in the course of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. The essays offer a variety of angles from which nineteenth-century literary dynamics in the Low Countries can be studied. The first two parts discuss the reception of Anglophone literature in the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively, while the third part focuses exclusively on the Dutch translation of women writers.
Dedicating Latin Works and Motets in the Sixteenth Century
During the sixteenth century, the traditional act of dedicating a text took on a new meaning due to the wider dissemination of the printed book. As the dedication and other paratexts thus became an almost indispensable part of the publication, they merit careful examination by those who study the presentation and impact of any printed work in its context. Paratexts bridge the gap between the outside World of the reading public and the enclosed world of the book, and often present biographical information concerning the persons involved in the making of the book. In the present volume, general reflections as well as case studies in the field of paratexts to Latin works and to musical compositions on Latin texts consider and exemplify these as well as other aspects of paratexts. The multidisciplinary perspective further enriches the insight in form, function and nature of the dedicatory act in the sixteenth century. A synthesis of the nature of the sixteenth-century dedication is thus presented, relevant not only to Neo-Latinists and musicologists, but also to (book) historians, philologists, and others.