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Eight essays connected by various common strands. The most important one is the community of the main subject-matter: socialism, capitalism, democracy, change of system. These four expressions cover four phenomena of great and comprehensive importance. Each piece in the book deals with these and the connections between them.
The Polish Crisis of 1980–1981
95 documents on the events that represent a pivotal moment in modern Polish and world history: 16 months between August 1980 when the Solidarity trade union was founded and December 1981 when Polish authorities declared martial law and crushed the nationwide opposition movement that had grown up around the union. Transcripts of Soviet and Polish Politburo meetings give a detailed picture of the goals, motivations and deliberations of the leaders of these countries. Records of Warsaw Pact gatherings, notes of bilateral sessions of the communist camp provide additional pieces to the puzzle of what Moscow and its allies had in mind. Materials are included from Solidarity, too.
The Path of Roma Integration
The disappointing results of over two decades of activism in the supposedly more liberal climate of post- Communist democracies prompted three renowned experts to exchange views, sometimes conflicting, about the situation of Roma in Eastern Europe. Their forthright statements stimulated other stakeholders at a workshop, and the distilled text of this discussion constitutes the fourth chapter of the book. While the book offers no easy solutions, the pre-eminence of its contributors and the lively arguments they provoked guarantee that it will be a touchstone for future debate as pro-Roma policies come under threat in Europe's time of crisis.
The Hungarian Tragedy
s relevant in the world of today’s geo-politics as when it was written. This World War II memoir was written by scholar, diplomat and anti-Nazi politician, Antal Ullein-Reviczky (1894-1956) the press chief of Hungary prior to and during the government of Miklós Kállay (1942-1944). This work by Ullein-Reviczky, an erudite, multilingual spokesperson of Hungary in the international arena will resonate for the reader who wishes to better understand recent history in Central and East Europe. As the wartime activities of this dedicated opponent of Hitler generated the fury of the German government including the Führer himself, Prime Minister Kállay found it prudent to send his loyal supporter to neutral Stockholm where he headed the Hungarian Legation from late 1943 through the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944. Married to the daughter of a British consul general in Turkey, Ullein-Reviczky became one of the Hungarian diplomats who turned against the pro-Nazi puppet regime established by the Germans in occupied Hungary and fought against the aggression to the bitter end. He was also fully aware of the growing Soviet threat to his country. This wartime memoir was first published as Guerre allemande, paix russe. Le drame hongrois in 1947 in Switzerland, immediately following the War. This first English edition, translated by his daughter Lovice Mária Ullein-Revickzy, is an invaluable source regarding Hungary’s fate in World War II. Ullein-Revickzy's book was based partly on the public and private documents he succeeded in saving throughout the war and his long years of exile in Turkey, Switzerland, France and Britain where he died. Written by a well-informed insider and a shrewd observer, his memoir has remained essentially unknown in the English-speaking world and in this new English edition represents an important source of the history of Hungary from German war through Russian peace, giving a unique insight into "the Hungarian tragedy”.
The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles
Written around 1112-1116, The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles is the oldest narrative source from Poland, formerly attributed to 'Gallus,' a French monk. The anonymous author tells the ancient history of Poland down to the reign of Boleslaw III. The chronicle contains valuable information on Poland's relations to her neighbors as well as the political ideas of his time.
Temporalities in Context
The interconnections of time with historical thought and knowledge have come powerfully to the fore since the 1970s. An international group of scholars, from a range of fields including literary theory, history of ideas, cultural anthropology, philosophy, intellectual history and theology, philology, and musicology, address the matter of time and temporalities. The volume’s essays, divided into four main topical groups question critically the key problem of context, connecting it to the problem of time. Contexts, the essays suggest, are not timeless. Time and its contexts are only partly “given” to us: to the primordial donations of time and world correspond our epistemic, moral, and practical modes of receiving what has been granted. The notion of context may have radically different parameters in different historical, cultural, and disciplinary situations. Topics include the deep antiquity, and the timeless time of eternity, as well as formal philosophies of history and the forms of histories implicit in individual and community experience. The medium specific use of time and history are examined with regard to song, image, film, oral narration, and legal discourse.
Based on unprecedented access to information, Government and Politics in Hungary provides not only a historical overview but also an analysis of the main political actors, constitution, electoral system, parliament and political parties of Hungary. This timely and detailed analysis contains a wealth of important data which serves two major objectives. The first is to survey the most important institutions of the political and governmental systems and the cultural and behavioural characteristics of Hungarian politics. The second, is to provide the reader with a clear understanding of the two-way relationship between cultural-behavioural and constitutional-institutional levels of politics in Hungary. The book challenges many stereotypes of post-communist political literature and reveals why Hungarian politics does not fit into many of the generalizations and 'pigeon holes' of contemporary political science.
Rural Change in the Early Years of Post-Socialist Capitalist Democracy
This comparative contemporary history investigates rural communities in six east-Central Europe countries in the 1990s experiencing what, for most, was the fourth radical restructuring of agricultural relations of the twentieth century, and, more challengingly, an historically unprecedented trajectory from socialism to capitalism. It considers similarity and difference in the linked processes of breathing real democratic life into the structures of local democracy and recreating farming structures and non-agricultural businesses based on private ownership and private enterprise.
Neo-avant-garde Art and Ecology under Socialism
This book examines the approaches of renowned Central European artists to the natural environment, uncovering an up till now largely unrecognized aspect of their work, which has regularly been analyzed through socio-political contexts, but rarely in terms of ecology. It focuses on the period after 1968, which not only brought changes to the political landscape of Eastern Europe, but shifted artistic practice towards conceptualism and was instrumental in spreading environmental consciousness. It comparatively investigates artists and artist groups from Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia and Czech Republic, at the moment when art exited the gallery and entered the natural environment, while socialist governments attempted to keep control over information about the real state of environmental pollution and block globally emerging ecological discourse. Apart from embedding artistic production in social, political and environmental histories of the region, this book also addresses the problem of art history as a discipline under socialism, presents a more complete picture of its neo-avant-garde art and constitutes an unprecedented application of the ecological paradigm to art history. It demonstrates the creativity, inventiveness and astuteness of Central European artists whose vision could not be controlled by any imposed borders at the dawn of global awareness of ecological crisis.
Crusader to Venetian Famagusta
The Harbour of All This Sea and Realm offers an overview of the Lusignan, Genoese and Venetian history of the main port city of Cyprus, a Mediterranean crossroads. The essays contribute to the understanding of Famagusta’s social and administrative structure, as well as the influences on its architectural, artisan, and art historical heritage from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries. We read of crusader bishops from central France, metalworkers from Asia Minor, mercenaries from Genoa, refugees from Acre, and traders from Venice. The themes of the city’s diasporas and cultural hybridity permeate and unify the essays in this collaborative effort.