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Dentists and Public Health in the Twentieth Century
Enriching Models Using Biogeography and Ecology
A. Townsend Peterson, one of the pioneers of ecological niche modeling, presents a synthesis that illuminates new and more effective infectious disease mapping methods. His work—the culmination of twelve years of refinement—breaks new ground by integrating biogeographic and ecological factors with spatial models. Aimed at seasoned epidemiologists and public health experts, this interdisciplinary book explains the conceptual and technical underpinnings of Peterson’s approach while simultaneously describing the potentially enormous benefits of his modeling method. Peterson treats disease transmission areas for what they are—distributions of species. The book argues that complex, fragmented, and highly irregular disease patterns can only be understood when underlying environmental drivers are considered. The result is an elegant modeling approach that challenges static spatial models and provides a framework for recasting disease mapping. Anyone working in the area of disease transmission, particularly those employing predictive maps, will find Peterson’s book both inspiring and indispensable.
With computerized health information receiving unprecedented government support, a group of health policy scholars analyze the intricate legal, social, and professional implications of the new technology. These essays explore how Health Information Technology (HIT) may alter relationships between physicians and patients, physicians and other providers, and physicians and their home institutions. Taken together, these investigations cast new light on the challenges and opportunities presented by HIT.
The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials
Focusing on the professional roles of those involved, as well as key research practices, Fisher assesses the risks and advantages for physicians and patients alike when pharmaceutical drug studies are used as an alternative to standard medical care.
This volume examines important aspects of China's century-long search to provide appropriate and effective health care for its people. Four subjects—disease and healing, encounters and accommodations, institutions and professions, and people's health—organize discussions across case studies of schistosomiasis, tuberculosis, mental health, and tobacco and health. Among the book’s significant conclusions are the importance of barefoot doctors in disseminating western medicine, the improvements in medical health and services during the long Sino-Japanese war, and the important role of the Chinese consumer. Intended for an audience of health practitioners, historians, and others interested in the history of medicine and health in China, the book is one of three commissioned by the China Medical Board to mark its centennial in 2014.
The Human and Ecological Cost of Colonial Silver Mining in the Andes
On the basis of an examination of the colonial mercury and silver production processes and related labor systems, Mercury, Mining, and Empire explores the effects of mercury pollution in colonial Huancavelica, Peru, and Potosí, in present-day Bolivia. The book presents a multifaceted and interwoven tale of what colonial exploitation of indigenous peoples and resources left in its wake. It is a socio-ecological history that explores the toxic interrelationships between mercury and silver production, urban environments, and the people who lived and worked in them. Nicholas A. Robins tells the story of how native peoples in the region were conscripted into the noxious ranks of foot soldiers of proto-globalism, and how their fate, and that of their communities, was -- and still is -- chained to it.
New Cases of Proven Success in Global Health
Over the past fifteen years, people in low- and middle-income countries have experienced a health revolution—one that has created new opportunities and brought new challenges. It is a revolution that keeps mothers and babies alive, helps children grow, and enables adults to thrive. Millions Saved: New Cases of Proven Success in Global Health chronicles the global health revolution from the ground up, showcasing twenty-two local, national, and regional health programs that have been part of this global change. The book profiles eighteen remarkable cases in which large-scale efforts to improve health in low- and middle-income countries succeeded, and four examples of promising interventions that fell short of their health targets when scaled-up in real world conditions. Each case demonstrates how much effort—and sometimes luck—is required to fight illness and sustain good health. The cases are grouped into four main categories, reflecting the diversity of strategies to improve population health in low-and middle-income countries: rolling out medicines and technologies; expanding access to health services; targeting cash transfers to improve health; and promoting population-wide behavior change to decrease risk. The programs covered also come from various regions around the world: seven from sub-Saharan Africa, six from Latin America and the Caribbean, five from East and Southeast Asia, and four from South Asia.
Égales devant la santé?
Le système de santé canadien, bien qu’universel, présente un portrait contrasté des états de santé et de l’espérance de vie. Si les résidents de Richmond en Colombie-Britannique peuvent espérer vivre 81 ans, ceux de la région du Nunavik ne peuvent guère imaginer dépasser 65 ans. Revenu, éducation et littératie sont quelques uns des déterminants qui entraînent une variation dans la distribution de la bonne et de la mauvaise santé.Qu’advient-il lorsqu’on compare les profils de santé des communautés de langue officielle minoritaire à la communauté linguistique majoritaire? Ces communautés ont-elles accès aux mêmes services de santé et dans les mêmes conditions? Ce sont là les questions sur lesquelles se penchent les auteurs en analysant les enquêtes nationales de santé produites par Statistique Canada, plus particulièrement l’Enquête nationale de santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (ESCC). Ils examinent en premier lieu le concept même de minorité nationale et de groupe en situation minoritaire dans le contexte canadien ainsi que la situation démographique et sociopolitique de ces groupes. Ils posent ensuite le cadre théorique qui leur a permis d’intégrer le fait minoritaire parmi les déterminants de la santé et présentent les résultats de recherche qui exposent les différences en matière de santé en défaveur des minorités linguistiques. Enfin, ils ouvrent la réflexion sur la perspective canadienne sur la santé, notamment en termes de politique et d’équité.