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Les bases du développement
Ce livre présente les connaissances et les hypothèses qui animent le domaine du développement social et émotionnel de l’enfant. Ce premier tome porte sur les aspects normatifs du développement, comme le tempérament, la relation d’attachement ou encore les influences génétiques et biologiques.
Sigmund Freud on the Sence of Guilt
Sigmund Freud, in his search for the origins of the sense of guilt in individual life and culture, regularly speaks of “reading a dark trace”, thus referring to the Oedipus myth as a myth on the problem of human guilt. The sense of guilt is indeed a trace that leads deep into the individual’s mental life, into his childhood life, and into the prehistory of culture and religion. In this book this trace is followed and thus Freud’s thought on the sense of guilt as a central issue in his work is analyzed, from the earliest studies on the moral and “guilty” characters of the hysterics, via the later complex differentiations in the concept of the sense of guilt, unto the analyses of civilization’s discontents and Jewish sense of guilt. The sense of guilt is a key issue in Freudian psychoanalysis, not only in relation to other key concepts in psychoanalytic theory, but also in relation to debates with others, such as Carl Gustav Jung or Melanie Klein, Freud was engaged in.
Freuds klinische antropologie van de agressiviteit
Filosofische verklaring van agressie als een inherent aspect van de mens. Met het fascinerende thema van de agressiviteit is er iets opmerkelijks aan de hand. In vergelijking met de talloze studies over de Eros wordt er in de geschiedenis van de filosofie relatief weinig aandacht besteed aan de plaats en de rol van de agressiviteit als een oorspronkelijke dimensie van onze menselijke existentie. Behalve in de moraalfilosofische traditie werd de agressiviteit zelden het expliciete voorwerp van wijsgerig-antropologisch onderzoek. Gezien de sociaal-maatschappelijke relevantie van het thema is dit bijzonder merkwaardig. Dit boek wil aan deze lacune tegemoet komen. Het beroept zich op het wijsgerige potentieel van de psychoanalytische traditie om een bijdrage te leveren aan de wijsgerige verheldering van de agressiviteit als een inherent aspect van de menselijke conditie. Het boek presenteert een originele lectuur van Freuds oeuvre en komt daarbij een freudiaanse klinische antropologie van de agressiviteit op het spoor. De schaduw van Kaïn ontwikkelt een genuanceerd en gedifferentieerd perspectief op de problematiek van de menselijke agressiviteit en biedt een alternatief antwoord op een klassieke, DSM-geïnspireerde en al te reductionistische benadering ervan.
Living the Life
Most stories about disabled people are written for the sake of being inspirational. These stories tend to focus on some achievement, such as a sports or academics, but rarely do they give a true and complete view of the challenges individuals must deal with on a daily basis. For example: How does a deaf-blind person interact with hearing-sighted people at a family reunion? How does she shop for groceries? What goes through his mind when he enters a classroom full of non-handicapped peers? These aren’t questions you are likely to find answers to while reading that incredible tale of success. They are, however, issues that a deaf-blind person wishes others understood. Deaf–Blind Reality: Living the Life explores what life is really like for persons with a combination of vision and hearing loss, and in a few cases, other disabilities as well. Editor Scott M. Stoffel presents extensive interviews with 12 deaf-blind individuals, including himself, who live around the world, from Missouri to New Zealand, Louisiana to South Africa, and Ohio to England. These contributors each describe their families’ reactions and the support they received; their experiences in school and entering adulthood; and how they coped with degeneration, ineffective treatments, and rehabilitation. Each discusses their personal education related to careers, relationships, and communication, including those with cochlear implants. Deaf–Blind Reality offers genuine understanding of the unspectacular, but altogether daunting challenges of daily life for deaf-blind people.
Plans of High School Seniors for after Graduation
The Authority of Metaphor in the History of Intelligence Testing, 1890-1930
In the early twentieth century, a small group of psychologists built a profession upon the new social technology of intelligence testing. They imagined the human mind as quantifiable, defining their new enterprise through analogies to the better established scientific professions of medicine and engineering. Offering a fresh interpretation of this controversial movement, JoAnne Brown reveals how this group created their professional sphere by semantically linking it to historical systems of cultural authority. She maintains that at the same time psychologists participated in a form of Progressivism, which she defines as a political culture founded on the technical exploitation of human intelligence as a "new" natural resource. This book addresses the early days of the mental testing enterprise, including its introduction into the educational system. Moreover, it examines the processes of social change that construct, and are constructed by, shared and contested cultural vocabularies. Brown argues that language is an integral part of social and political experience, and its forms and uses can be specified historically. The historical and theoretical implications will interest scholars in the fields of history, politics, psychology, sociology of knowledge, history and philosophy of social science, and sociolinguistics.
Analysis of The Logic of Sense
A close reading of Deleuze’s major text on desire. The engagement of Deleuze with psychoanalysis has led to the development of a remarkable and highly influential theory about human desire. The most systematic account of this theory, crucial for anyone interested in the work of Deleuze and Guattari, can be found in the discussion of the dynamic genesis of sense, a pivotal part of Deleuze’s The Logic of Sense. In Deleuze and Desire Piotrek Świątkowski picks up the challenge to provide an ad literam commentary of this text. Świątkowski makes use of a broad range of examples, from psychoanalytic case studies to art, literature, and film, and analyses in an accessible and clear way the impact of the work of psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein on Deleuze.
Philosophical Essays on Deleuze's Debate with Psychoanalysis
Gilles Deleuze is among the twentieth century's most important philosophers of difference. The style of his extended oeuvre is so extremely dense and cryptic that reading and appreciating it require an unusual degree of openness and a willingness to enter a complicated but extremely rich system of thought. The abundant debates with and references to a variety of authors of many different domains; the sophisticated conceptual framework; the creation of new concepts and the injection of existing concepts with new meanings - all this makes his oeuvre difficult to grasp. This book can be seen as a guide to reading Deleuze, but at the same time it is a direct confrontation with issues at stake, particularly the debate with and against psychoanalysis. This debate not only offers the occasion to find an entrance to Deleuze's basic thought, but also throws the reader into the middle of the dispute. The book provides a clear and perspicuous overview of subject matter of interest to psychoanalysts, Deleuzean or otherwise.
Levinasian Ethics and Identity in Psychology
How does psychology attend to the question of “goodness”? Does the sense of self that modern psychologies promote help to orient persons toward ethical responsibility for the other person? In this book, David M. Goodman engages these questions, demonstrating that the prevalent discourse and constructs of the self in modern psychology not only fail to address such issues, but also contribute to the formation of a self lived without ethical regard for the other. In his penetrating and thought-provoking analysis of contemporary psychological theory and practice, Goodman critiques its “methodolatry” to scientific theory and emphasis on autonomous reason. Challenging the assumptions behind the naturalized, egological, and individualistic accounts of the self that dominate current approaches, he proposes an alternative by appealing to the philosophical work of Emmanuel Levinas. As Goodman indicates, Levinas’s phenomenology establishes an originary ethical attunement to the other, which precedes empirical and medical approaches to psychology that would consign ethics to a detached, secondary list of codes. Moving between historical analysis, illumination of contemporary psychological trends, and philosophical juxtapositions of Greek and Hebrew thought, Goodman demonstrates how the ethical dimension of human experience has too frequently been neglected within present constructs of the self and argues that Levinas’s demanded self serves as a radical corrective to the morally anemic definitions of the modern self. Ultimately, Goodman explains and details this countercultural version of the self—defined by its relation to the other and called into a “freedom born from responsibility”—and offers helpful corollary case studies and therapeutic practices that engender this sensibility. The Demanded Self provides a means of entering into the conversations taking place at the intersection of Levinas’s ethical theory, psychology, psychoanalysis, religion, and philosophy, and will appeal to scholars and advanced students in all of these fields.
Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many
Individual decision making can often be wrong due to misinformation, impulses, or biases. Collective decision making, on the other hand, can be surprisingly accurate. In Democratic Reason, Hélène Landemore demonstrates that the very factors behind the superiority of collective decision making add up to a strong case for democracy. She shows that the processes and procedures of democratic decision making form a cognitive system that ensures that decisions taken by the many are more likely to be right than decisions taken by the few. Democracy as a form of government is therefore valuable not only because it is legitimate and just, but also because it is smart.
Landemore considers how the argument plays out with respect to two main mechanisms of democratic politics: inclusive deliberation and majority rule. In deliberative settings, the truth-tracking properties of deliberation are enhanced more by inclusiveness than by individual competence. Landemore explores this idea in the contexts of representative democracy and the selection of representatives. She also discusses several models for the "wisdom of crowds" channeled by majority rule, examining the trade-offs between inclusiveness and individual competence in voting. When inclusive deliberation and majority rule are combined, they beat less inclusive methods, in which one person or a small group decide. Democratic Reason thus establishes the superiority of democracy as a way of making decisions for the common good.