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Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus
College campuses provide ideal natural settings for studying diversity: they allow us to see what happens when students of all different backgrounds sit side by side in classrooms, live together in residence halls, and interact in one social space. By opening a window onto the experiences and evolving identities of individuals in these exceptionally diverse environments, we can gain a better understanding of the possibilities and challenges we face as a multicultural nation. The Diversity Challenge—the largest and most comprehensive study to date on college campus diversity—synthesizes over five years’ worth of research by an interdisciplinary team of experts to explore how a highly diverse environment and policies that promote cultural diversity affect social relations, identity formation, and a variety of racial and political attitudes. The result is a fascinating case study of the ways in which individuals grow and groups interact in a world where ethnic and racial difference is the norm. The authors of The Diversity Challenge followed 2,000 UCLA students for five years in order to see how diversity affects identities, attitudes, and group conflicts over time. They found that racial prejudice generally decreased with exposure to the ethnically diverse college environment. Students who were randomly assigned to roommates of a different ethnicity developed more favorable attitudes toward students of different backgrounds, and the same associations held for friendship and dating patterns. By contrast, students who interacted mainly with others of similar backgrounds were more likely to exhibit bias toward others and perceive discrimination against their group. Likewise, the authors found that involvement in ethnically segregated student organizations sharpened perceptions of discrimination and aggravated conflict between groups. The Diversity Challenge also reports compelling new evidence that a strong ethnic identity can coexist with a larger community identity: students from all ethnic groups were equally likely to identify themselves as a part of the broader UCLA community. Overall, the authors note that on many measures, the racial and political attitudes of the students were remarkably consistent throughout the five year study. But the transformations that did take place provide us with a wealth of information on how diversity affects individuals, groups, and the cohesion of a community. Theoretically informed and empirically grounded, The Diversity Challenge is an illuminating and provocative portrait of one of the most diverse college campuses in the nation. The story of multicultural UCLA has significant and far-reaching implications for our nation, as we face similar challenges—and opportunities—on a much larger scale.
Crisis, Challenge, Or Relief?
Not since William Goode's Women in Divorce in the 1950's have we had such a comprehensive study of adjustment to divorce. This longitudinal work views divorce as a transition process which may have positive or negative outcomes over time. In addition to statistical analysis, the book includes very interesting case studies to demonstrate the dynamic events occurring as individuals refashion their lives after the breakup of their marriages. Researchers on divorce and the interested public will find this book very valuable for years to come."
Colleen L. Johnson, Ph.D.Professor
Medical Anthropology, University of California, San Francisco
We are witnessing a steady increase in the overall number of older adults who are divorced, yet the majority of divorce research has concerned itself with persons in the younger adult years. This unique, groundbreaking book addresses the critical need for information on the impact of divorce on individuals in all age groups, and pays special attention to age as a factor in the effects of divorce on both men and women.
Written by an interdisciplinary team of social and behavioral scientists, Divorce: Crisis, Challenge or Relief? provides the invaluable results gained from their life span study of divorced adults. Divorce is the product of hundreds of interviews containing a host of very specific questions conducted with divorced adults between the ages of 20 and 79, both just after their divorce and again several years later.
A Hedgefoxian Perspective
Philosophers have long tussled over whether moral judgments are the products of logical reasoning or simply emotional reactions. From Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility to the debates of modern psychologists, the question of whether feeling or sober rationality is the better guide to decision making has been a source of controversy. In Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? Kathleen Vohs, Roy Baumeister, and George Loewenstein lead a group of prominent psychologists and economists in exploring the empirical evidence on how emotions shape judgments and choices. Researchers on emotion and cognition have staked out many extreme positions: viewing emotions as either the driving force behind cognition or its side effect, either an impediment to sound judgment or a guide to wise decisions. The contributors to Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? provide a richer perspective, exploring the circumstances that shape whether emotions play a harmful or helpful role in decisions. Roy Baumeister, C. Nathan DeWall, and Liqing Zhang show that while an individual’s current emotional state can lead to hasty decisions and self-destructive behavior, anticipating future emotional outcomes can be a helpful guide to making sensible decisions. Eduardo Andrade and Joel Cohen find that a positive mood can negatively affect people’s willingness to act altruistically. Happy people, when made aware of risks associated with altruistic acts, become wary of jeopardizing their own well-being. Benoît Monin, David Pizarro, and Jennifer Beer find that whether emotion or reason matters more in moral evaluation depends on the specific issue in question. Individual characteristics often mediate the effect of emotions on decisions. Catherine Rawn, Nicole Mead, Peter Kerkhof, and Kathleen Vohs find that whether an individual makes a decision based on emotion depends both on the type of decision in question and the individual’s level of self-esteem. And Quinn Kennedy and Mara Mather show that the elderly are better able to regulate their emotions, having learned from experience to anticipate the emotional consequences of their behavior. Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? represents a significant advance toward a comprehensive theory of emotions and cognition that accounts for the nuances of the mental processes involved. This landmark book will be a stimulus to scholarly debates as well as an informative guide to everyday decisions.
What They Don't Want You to Know about Shock Treatment
Doctors of Deception is a revealing history of ECT (or shock therapy) in the United States, told here for the first time. Through the examination of court records, medical data, FDA reports, industry claims, her own experience as a patient of shock therapy, and the stories of others, Andre exposes tactics used by the industry to promote ECT as a responsible treatment when all the scientific evidence suggested otherwise.
How do emotions change over time? When is hate honorable? What happens when love is translated into different languages? Such questions are now being addressed by historians who trace how emotions have been expressed and understood in different cultures throughout history. Doing Emotions History explores the history of feelings such as love, joy, grief, nostalgia as well as a wide range of others, bringing together the latest and most innovative scholarship on the history of the emotions. Spanning the globe from Asia and Europe to North America, the book provides a crucial overview of this emerging discipline. An international group of scholars reviews the field's current status and variations, addresses many of its central debates, provides models and methods, and proposes an array of possibilities for future research. Emphasizing the field's intersections with anthropology, psychology, sociology, neuroscience, data-mining, and popular culture, this groundbreaking volume demonstrates the affecting potential of doing emotions history.
Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education
The essential guide on how to teach about dreaming.Dreaming in the Classroom provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about dreams and rank classes on dreaming among their favorite, most significant educational experiences. Covering a wide variety of academic disciplines such as psychology, anthropology, film studies, philosophy, and religious studies, the book explains in clear and practical language the most effective methods for teaching accurate, useful information about dreams to students in colleges and universities, graduate programs, psychotherapy institutes, seminaries, primary and secondary schools, and nonacademic settings. Included are detailed discussions of how to create an appropriate syllabus, integrate material from multiple disciplines, nurture skills in writing and critical reasoning, propose courses to skeptical administrators, and facilitate a responsible process for sharing dreams in a classroom setting. The book draws on interviews with dozens of accomplished teachers, along with the authors’ many years of pedagogical practice, to present proven strategies for using this perennially fascinating topic to promote successful student learning.
Une perspective transdisciplinaire qui vise à mieux saisir cette problématique et à offrir des pistes d'intervention
Cet ouvrage collectif, dirigé par deux professeurs-chercheurs engagés dans le domaine de la réadaptation au travail, propose de passer en revue les éléments essentiels à une bonne compréhension du retour et de la réintégration au travail de personnes aux prises avec un trouble mental. Au sein de notre société moderne, notamment dans les organisations, les troubles mentaux constituent désormais une problématique qui préoccupe les acteurs concernés par le retour et la réintégration au travail, tels que l’employeur, le supérieur immédiat, le représentant syndical, le représentant du système d’assurance, le professionnel de la santé et l’intervenant qui facilite le retour au travail, sans oublier les personnes significatives de l’environnement immédiat de l’individu souffrant d’un trouble mental.Tous ces acteurs clés, mais aussi les chercheurs, les planificateurs et les décideurs des instances gouvernementales qui souhaitent mieux saisir cette problématique et tenter d’y faire face adéquatement trouveront dans cet ouvrage des pistes à explorer selon leurs besoins respectifs. Les outils et les interventions abordés dans cet ouvrage, dont on a reconnu l’efficacité, sont sans conteste des leviers qui permettront de faire progresser cette problématique en plein essor. Aussi, doté d’une approche transdisciplinaire, il pourra offrir aux étudiants de diverses formations un portrait holistique de ce domaine de recherche sur la santé: vivre ou avoir vécu un trouble mental tout en participant de façon active au marché du travail ordinaire. Cet ouvrage a donc l’ambition d’aller au-delà de l’incapacité au travail chez une personne souffrant d’un trouble mental.
Freud as a Modern Jew
Using Freud’s correspondence, this book argues that his Jewishness was in fact a source of energy and pride for him and that he identified with both Jewish and humanist traditions. Gresser presents an extended analysis of Freud’s personal correspondence. Arranged in chronological order, the material conveys a vivid sense of Freud’s personal and psychological development. Close reading of Freud’s letters, with frequent attention to the original German and its cultural context, allows Gresser to weave a fascinating story of Freud’s life and Jewish commitments, as seen through the words of the master himself. The book culminates in an extended discussion of Freud’s last and most deliberately Jewish work, Moses and Monotheism. Gresser thus initiates a discussion about modern Jewish identity that will be of interest to anyone concerned about questions of the relationship between tradition and modernity, and between the particular and the universal, that moderns struggle with in the search for authenticity.