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Cochlear Implants in Children Cover

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Cochlear Implants in Children

Ethics and Choices

John B. Christiansen and Irene W. Leigh, Editors

Cochlear Implants in Children: Ethics and Choices addresses every facet of the ongoing controversy about implanting cochlear hearing devices in children as young as 12 months old and in some cases, younger. Authors John B. Christiansen and Irene W. Leigh and contributors Jay Lucker and Patricia Elizabeth Spencer analyzed the sensitive issues connected with the procedure by reviewing 439 responses to a survey of parents with children who have cochlear implants. They followed up with interviews of the parents of children who have had a year's experience using their implants, and also the children themselves. Their findings shape the core of this useful and telling study. Cochlear Implants begins with a history of their development and an explanation of how implants convert sound into electric impulses that stimulate the brain. The second section focuses on pediatric implants, starting with the ways parents coped with the discovery that their child was deaf. Parents share how they learned about cochlear implants and how they chose an implant center. They also detail their children's experiences with the implants after surgery, and their progress with language acquisition and in school. The final part treats the controversy associated with cochlear implants, particularly the reaction of the Deaf community and the ethics of implanting young children without their consent. Cochlear Implants concludes with sage observations and recommendations for parents and professionals that complete it as the essential book on the pros and cons of this burgeoning technology.

Controversial Bodies Cover

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Controversial Bodies

Thoughts on the Public Display of Plastinated Corpses

edited by John D. Lantos, M.D.

Controversial, fascinating, disturbing, and often beautiful, plastinated human bodies—such as those found at Body Worlds exhibitions throughout the world—have gripped the public's imagination. These displays have been lauded as educational, sparked protests, and drawn millions of visitors. This book looks at the powerful sway these corpses hold over their living audiences everywhere. Plastination was invented in the 1970s by German anatomist Gunther von Hagens. The process transforms living tissues into moldable plastic that can then be hardened into a permanent shape. Von Hagens first exhibited his expertly dissected, artfully posed plastinated bodies in Japan in 1995. Since then, his shows have continuously attracted so many paying customers that they have inspired imitators, brought accusations of unethical or even illegal behavior, and ignited vigorous debates among scientists, educators, religious leaders, and law enforcement officials. These lively, thought-provoking, and sometimes personal essays reflect on such public displays from ethical, legal, cultural, religious, pedagogical, and aesthetic perspectives. They examine what lies behind the exhibitions' popularity and explore the ramifications of turning corpses into a spectacle of amusement. Contributions from bioethicists, historians, physicians, anatomists, theologians, and novelists dig deeply into issues that compel, upset, and unsettle us all.

Cytomegalovirus Cover

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Cytomegalovirus

A Hospitalization Diary

Hervé Guibert, Introduction by David Caron, Afterword by Todd Meyers, Translated by Clara Orban

By the time of his death, Hervé Guibert had become a singular literary voice on the impact of AIDS in France. He was prolific. His oeuvre contained some twenty novels, including To the Friend Who Did Not Save My Life and The Compassion Protocol. He was 36 years old. In Cytomegalovirus, Guibert offers an autobiographical narrative of the everyday moments of his hospitalization due to complications of AIDS. Cytomegalovirus is spare, biting, and anguished. Guibert writes through the minutiae of living and of death––as a quality of invention, of melancholy, of small victories in the face of greater threats––at the moment when his sight (and life) is eclipsed. This new edition includes an introduction and afterword contextualizing Guibert’s work within the history of the AIDS pandemic, its relevance in the contemporary moment, and the importance of understanding the quotidian aspects of terminal illness.

Dark Medicine Cover

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Dark Medicine

Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research

Edited by William R. LaFleur, Gernot Böhme, and Susumu Shimazono

The trial of the "German doctors" exposed atrocities of Nazi medical science and led to the Nuremberg Code governing human experimentation. In Japan, Unit 731 carried out hideous experiments on captured Chinese and downed American pilots. In the United States, stories linger of biological experimentation during the Korean War. This collection of essays looks at the dark medical research conducted during and after World War II. Contributors describe this research, how it was brought to light, and the rationalizations of those who perpetrated and benefited from it.

De l'éthique à l'ergothérapie Cover

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De l'éthique à l'ergothérapie

La philosophie au service de la pratique ergothérapique 2e édition

En permettant de comprendre la nature de l'éthique en tant que discipline philosophique, De l'éthique à l'ergothérapie cerne les préoccupations essentielles de l'éthique appliquée à la pratique de l'ergothérapie. Ce livre offre une base théorique en décortiquant, notamment, la théorie des stades de développement du raisonnement éthique de Kohlberg ainsi que les trois grandes familles de théories éthiques contemporaines que sont l'éthique utilitariste, l'éthique déontologique et l'éthique des vertus. Il permet aussi de saisir ce qu'est une valeur, en vue de réfléchir à l'identité des individus et à ce qui les motive à agir. Cette clarification de la notion de valeur facilite l'identification et l'analyse des enjeux éthiques que rencontre l'ergo­thérapeute. Enfin, cet ouvrage propose dix étapes pour résoudre de façon ­structurée, méthodique, pertinente et rigoureuse les problèmes éthiques reliés à la pratique de l'ergothérapie. Cela dit, ce livre n'est pas une panacée ; il ne propose pas de solutions universelles. Il offre plutôt une méthode d'approche des problèmes éthiques reliés à la pratique de l'ergothérapie ainsi qu'un vocabulaire éthique, c'est-à-dire des valeurs, des vertus, des principes et des arguments en provenance des trois principales familles de théories éthiques contemporaines qui peuvent aider, au quotidien, la réflexion et la pratique éthiques du professionnel de l'occupation qu'est l'ergothérapeute. Ce livre de référence entend outiller l'ergothérapeute, peu importe son lieu de pratique ainsi que le rôle qu'il occupe (clinicien, consultant, coordonnateur clinique, gestionnaire, administrateur, enseignant, chercheur, coordonnateur de stage, propriétaire d'une clinique privée, politicien, etc.), afin qu'il soit en mesure d'aborder avec plus d'aisance et de confiance des situations qui soulèvent des enjeux éthiques. L'école d'Athènes (fresque de Raphaël, XVe siècle) représente la philosophie. Au centre, Platon tend sa main vers le ciel et Aristote désigne le sol. Cette représentation symbolique illustre les divergences philo-sophiques entre leurs théories. Alors que Platon opte pour une approche idéaliste et déductive pour générer des connaissances, Aristote use d'une approche empiriste et inductive. Ils sont entourés par plusieurs autres philosophes, dont Zénon de Citium, Épicure, Pythagore, Parménide, Héraclite et Diogène. Cette oeuvre peut être admirée au Vatican.

A Death Retold Cover

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A Death Retold

Jesica Santillan, the Bungled Transplant, and Paradoxes of Medical Citizenship

Edited by Keith Wailoo, Julie Livingston, and Peter Guarnaccia

In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. Contributors view the Santillan story as a morality tale: about the conflicting values underpinning American health care; about the politics of transplant medicine; about how a nation debates deservedness, justice, and second chances; and about the global dilemmas of medical tourism and citizenship. Contributors: Charles Bosk, University of Pennsylvania Leo R. Chavez, University of California, Irvine Richard Cook, University of Chicago Thomas Diflo, New York University Medical Center Jason Eberl, Indiana University@-Purdue University Indianapolis Jed Adam Gross, Yale University Jacklyn Habib, American Association of Retired Persons Tyler R. Harrison, Purdue University Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University Nancy M. P. King, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Barron Lerner, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Susan E. Lederer, Yale University Julie Livingston, Rutgers University Eric M. Meslin, Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University@-Purdue University Indianapolis Susan E. Morgan, Purdue University Nancy Scheper-Hughes, University of California, Berkeley Rosamond Rhodes, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Carolyn Rouse, Princeton University Karen Salmon, New England School of Law Lesley Sharp, Barnard and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Lisa Volk Chewning, Rutgers University Keith Wailoo, Rutgers University This collection of essays provides a multidisciplinary conversation about Jesica Santillan, the undocumented immigrant teen who died after receiving a heart transplant of the wrong blood type. Contributors from the fields of history, sociology, surgery, ethics, anthropology, media, and law offer differing perspectives on common themes that give a cohesive structure to the collection. In sixteen essays, they discuss the promise and problems of high-tech medicine, tort reform and malpractice suits, distribution of scarce resources, personal and systemic errors in health care, and the impact of highly publicized media dramas. Without placing blame, the essayists seek to understand the events and issues as played out in key locales and practices: in hospitals wary of committing errors, in transplant procedures concerned with timely delivery of organs, in print and broadcast media bent on satisfying public interest in stories of life-saving medicine or medical scandal, and in the global turn toward medical tourism. In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. Contributors view the Santillan story as a morality tale: about the conflicting values underpinning American health care; about the politics of transplant medicine; about how a nation debates deservedness, justice, and second chances; and about the global dilemmas of medical tourism and citizenship. Contributors: Charles Bosk, University of Pennsylvania Leo R. Chavez, University of California, Irvine Richard Cook, University of Chicago Thomas Diflo, New York University Medical Center Jason Eberl, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Jed Adam Gross, Yale University Jacklyn Habib, American Association of Retired Persons Tyler R. Harrison, Purdue University Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University Nancy M. P. King, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Barron Lerner, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Susan E. Lederer, Yale University Julie Livingston, Rutgers University Eric M. Meslin, Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Susan E. Morgan, Purdue University Nancy Scheper-Hughes, University of California, Berkeley Rosamond Rhodes, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Carolyn Rouse, Princeton University Karen Salmon, New England School of Law Lesley Sharp, Barnard and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Lisa Volk Chewning, Rutgers University Keith Wailoo, Rutgers University

A Defense of Dignity Cover

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A Defense of Dignity

Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience

Christopher Kaczor

Questions about the dignity of the human person give rise to many of the most central and hotly disputed topics in bioethics. In A Defense of Dignity: Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience, Christopher Kaczor investigates whether each human being has intrinsic dignity and whether the very concept of "dignity" has a useful place in contemporary ethical debates. Kaczor explores a broad range of issues addressed in contemporary bioethics, including whether there is a duty of "procreative beneficence," the ethics of ectopic pregnancy, and the possibility of "rescuing" human embryos with human wombs or artificial wombs. A Defense of Dignity also treats issues relevant to the end of life, including physician-assisted suicide, provision of food and water to patients in a persistent vegetative state, and how to proceed with organ donation following death. Finally, what are the duties and prerogatives of health care professionals who refuse in conscience to take part in activities that they regard as degrading to human dignity? Should they be forced to do what they consider to be violations of the patient's well being, or does patient autonomy always trump the conscience of a health care professional? Grounded in the Catholic intellectual and moral tradition, A Defense of Dignity argues that all human beings from the beginning to the end of their lives should be treated with respect and considers how this belief should be applied in controversial cases.

Designing Our Descendants Cover

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Designing Our Descendants

The Promises and Perils of Genetic Modifications

edited by Audrey R. Chapman and Mark S. Frankel

The Human Genome Project, discoveries in molecular biology, and new reproductive technologies have advanced our understanding of how genetic science may be used to treat persons with genetic disorders. Greater knowledge may also make possible genetic interventions to "enhance" normal human characteristics, such as height, hair or eye color, strength, or memory, as well as the transmittal of such modifications to future generations. The prospect of inheritable genetic modifications, or IGMs, whether for therapeutic or enhancement purposes, raises complex scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues. Designing Our Descendants presents twenty essays by physicians, scientists, philosophers, theologians, lawyers, and policy analysts addressing these issues from diverse perspectives. In three sections, the authors discuss the short- and long-term scientific feasibility of IGM technology; ethical and religious issues related to safety, justice, morality, reproductive rights, and enhancement; and regulatory issues including the necessity of public input and oversight and the influence of commercialization. Their goal is to open a dialogue engaging not only scholars and scientists but also government officials and concerned citizens. The authors conclude that while IGM cannot be carried out safely and responsibly on humans utilizing current methods, it is important to begin public discussion now to determine whether, and if so how, to proceed.

Ethical Deliberation in Multiprofessional Health Care Teams Cover

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Ethical Deliberation in Multiprofessional Health Care Teams

Edited by Hubert Doucet, Jean-Marc Larouche and Kenneth R. Melchin

This study analyzes both pragmatic and theoretical perspectives of ethical deliberation, as well as the professional and philosophical backgrounds for the ethical deliberation of social workers, nurses and doctors working in the field of chronic illness. In doing so, this volume expands the scope of current research through an analysis of the process and its dynamics.

Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease Cover

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Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease

edited by Ruth B. Purtilo, Ph.D., and Henk A.M.J. ten Have, M.D., Ph.D. foreword by Christine K. Cassel, M.D.

Alzheimer disease afflicts more than twelve million people worldwide, and its incidence is increasing at a staggering rate. People with the disorder are living longer than have those in previous generations, and they require interventions for quality-of-life issues associated with palliative care. However, the symptoms of Alzheimer disease often fail to place such persons into settings where palliative care resources are available to them. Indeed, clinicians and other caregivers may be unsure about what constitutes effective palliation in these cases. At the same time, the ethical issues involved in providing end-of-life care to persons with Alzheimer disease remain on the margins of mainstream bioethics. In Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease, leading ethicists and clinicians from the United States and Europe explore ethical and scientific concerns about the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer disease, challenges arising from applying palliative procedures to its symptoms, key philosophical and theological concepts central to our understanding of the disease and to end-of-life decisions, and the changing patterns of relevant medical, social, and economic policies. Cross-cultural, multidisciplinary, and state-of-the-art, this volume is a unique and important resource for bioethicists, clinicians, and policy makers everywhere. Contributors: David A. Bennahum, M.D., University of New Mexico; Pierre Boitte, Ph.D., Catholic University of Lille, France; Roger A. Brumback, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Wim J. M. Dekkers, M.D., Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Elizabeth Furlong, R.N., Ph.D., J.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Eugenijus Gefenas, M.D., Ph.D., Vilnius University, Lithuania; Bert Gordijn, Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Amy M. Haddad, R.N., Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Søren Holm, M.D., Ph.D., Dr.Med.Sci., University of Manchester; Franz J. Illhardt, D.D., Ph.D., Freiburg University; Rien Janssens, Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Givi Javashvili, M.D., Ph.D., State Medical Academy of Georgia, Tbilisi; Judith Lee Kissell, Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Gunilla Nordenram, D.D.S., Ph.D., Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Richard L. O'Brien, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert, M.D., Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Winifred J. Ellenchild Pinch, R.N., Ed.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Patricio F. Reyes, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Anne-Sophie Rigaud, M.D., Ph.D., Hôpital Broca, Paris; Linda S. Scheirton, Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Jos V. M. Welie, M.Med.S., J.D., Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center.

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