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Controversial Bodies Cover

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Controversial Bodies

Thoughts on the Public Display of Plastinated Corpses

edited by John D. Lantos, M.D.

Controversial, fascinating, disturbing, and often beautiful, plastinated human bodies—such as those found at Body Worlds exhibitions throughout the world—have gripped the public's imagination. These displays have been lauded as educational, sparked protests, and drawn millions of visitors. This book looks at the powerful sway these corpses hold over their living audiences everywhere. Plastination was invented in the 1970s by German anatomist Gunther von Hagens. The process transforms living tissues into moldable plastic that can then be hardened into a permanent shape. Von Hagens first exhibited his expertly dissected, artfully posed plastinated bodies in Japan in 1995. Since then, his shows have continuously attracted so many paying customers that they have inspired imitators, brought accusations of unethical or even illegal behavior, and ignited vigorous debates among scientists, educators, religious leaders, and law enforcement officials. These lively, thought-provoking, and sometimes personal essays reflect on such public displays from ethical, legal, cultural, religious, pedagogical, and aesthetic perspectives. They examine what lies behind the exhibitions' popularity and explore the ramifications of turning corpses into a spectacle of amusement. Contributions from bioethicists, historians, physicians, anatomists, theologians, and novelists dig deeply into issues that compel, upset, and unsettle us all.

Dark Medicine Cover

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Dark Medicine

Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research

Edited by William R. LaFleur, Gernot Böhme, and Susumu Shimazono

The trial of the "German doctors" exposed atrocities of Nazi medical science and led to the Nuremberg Code governing human experimentation. In Japan, Unit 731 carried out hideous experiments on captured Chinese and downed American pilots. In the United States, stories linger of biological experimentation during the Korean War. This collection of essays looks at the dark medical research conducted during and after World War II. Contributors describe this research, how it was brought to light, and the rationalizations of those who perpetrated and benefited from it.

A Death Retold Cover

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A Death Retold

Jesica Santillan, the Bungled Transplant, and Paradoxes of Medical Citizenship

Edited by Keith Wailoo, Julie Livingston, and Peter Guarnaccia

In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. Contributors view the Santillan story as a morality tale: about the conflicting values underpinning American health care; about the politics of transplant medicine; about how a nation debates deservedness, justice, and second chances; and about the global dilemmas of medical tourism and citizenship. Contributors: Charles Bosk, University of Pennsylvania Leo R. Chavez, University of California, Irvine Richard Cook, University of Chicago Thomas Diflo, New York University Medical Center Jason Eberl, Indiana University@-Purdue University Indianapolis Jed Adam Gross, Yale University Jacklyn Habib, American Association of Retired Persons Tyler R. Harrison, Purdue University Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University Nancy M. P. King, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Barron Lerner, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Susan E. Lederer, Yale University Julie Livingston, Rutgers University Eric M. Meslin, Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University@-Purdue University Indianapolis Susan E. Morgan, Purdue University Nancy Scheper-Hughes, University of California, Berkeley Rosamond Rhodes, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Carolyn Rouse, Princeton University Karen Salmon, New England School of Law Lesley Sharp, Barnard and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Lisa Volk Chewning, Rutgers University Keith Wailoo, Rutgers University This collection of essays provides a multidisciplinary conversation about Jesica Santillan, the undocumented immigrant teen who died after receiving a heart transplant of the wrong blood type. Contributors from the fields of history, sociology, surgery, ethics, anthropology, media, and law offer differing perspectives on common themes that give a cohesive structure to the collection. In sixteen essays, they discuss the promise and problems of high-tech medicine, tort reform and malpractice suits, distribution of scarce resources, personal and systemic errors in health care, and the impact of highly publicized media dramas. Without placing blame, the essayists seek to understand the events and issues as played out in key locales and practices: in hospitals wary of committing errors, in transplant procedures concerned with timely delivery of organs, in print and broadcast media bent on satisfying public interest in stories of life-saving medicine or medical scandal, and in the global turn toward medical tourism. In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. In February 2003, an undocumented immigrant teen from Mexico lay dying in a prominent American hospital due to a stunning medical oversight--she had received a heart-lung transplantation of the wrong blood type. In the following weeks, Jesica Santillan's tragedy became a portal into the complexities of American medicine, prompting contentious debate about new patterns and old problems in immigration, the hidden epidemic of medical error, the lines separating transplant "haves" from "have-nots," the right to sue, and the challenges posed by "foreigners" crossing borders for medical care. This volume draws together experts in history, sociology, medical ethics, communication and immigration studies, transplant surgery, anthropology, and health law to understand the dramatic events, the major players, and the core issues at stake. Contributors view the Santillan story as a morality tale: about the conflicting values underpinning American health care; about the politics of transplant medicine; about how a nation debates deservedness, justice, and second chances; and about the global dilemmas of medical tourism and citizenship. Contributors: Charles Bosk, University of Pennsylvania Leo R. Chavez, University of California, Irvine Richard Cook, University of Chicago Thomas Diflo, New York University Medical Center Jason Eberl, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Jed Adam Gross, Yale University Jacklyn Habib, American Association of Retired Persons Tyler R. Harrison, Purdue University Beatrix Hoffman, Northern Illinois University Nancy M. P. King, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Barron Lerner, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Susan E. Lederer, Yale University Julie Livingston, Rutgers University Eric M. Meslin, Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis Susan E. Morgan, Purdue University Nancy Scheper-Hughes, University of California, Berkeley Rosamond Rhodes, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Carolyn Rouse, Princeton University Karen Salmon, New England School of Law Lesley Sharp, Barnard and Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Lisa Volk Chewning, Rutgers University Keith Wailoo, Rutgers University

A Defense of Dignity Cover

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A Defense of Dignity

Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience

Christopher Kaczor

Questions about the dignity of the human person give rise to many of the most central and hotly disputed topics in bioethics. In A Defense of Dignity: Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience, Christopher Kaczor investigates whether each human being has intrinsic dignity and whether the very concept of "dignity" has a useful place in contemporary ethical debates. Kaczor explores a broad range of issues addressed in contemporary bioethics, including whether there is a duty of "procreative beneficence," the ethics of ectopic pregnancy, and the possibility of "rescuing" human embryos with human wombs or artificial wombs. A Defense of Dignity also treats issues relevant to the end of life, including physician-assisted suicide, provision of food and water to patients in a persistent vegetative state, and how to proceed with organ donation following death. Finally, what are the duties and prerogatives of health care professionals who refuse in conscience to take part in activities that they regard as degrading to human dignity? Should they be forced to do what they consider to be violations of the patient's well being, or does patient autonomy always trump the conscience of a health care professional? Grounded in the Catholic intellectual and moral tradition, A Defense of Dignity argues that all human beings from the beginning to the end of their lives should be treated with respect and considers how this belief should be applied in controversial cases.

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Designing Our Descendants

The Promises and Perils of Genetic Modifications

edited by Audrey R. Chapman and Mark S. Frankel

The Human Genome Project, discoveries in molecular biology, and new reproductive technologies have advanced our understanding of how genetic science may be used to treat persons with genetic disorders. Greater knowledge may also make possible genetic interventions to "enhance" normal human characteristics, such as height, hair or eye color, strength, or memory, as well as the transmittal of such modifications to future generations. The prospect of inheritable genetic modifications, or IGMs, whether for therapeutic or enhancement purposes, raises complex scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues. Designing Our Descendants presents twenty essays by physicians, scientists, philosophers, theologians, lawyers, and policy analysts addressing these issues from diverse perspectives. In three sections, the authors discuss the short- and long-term scientific feasibility of IGM technology; ethical and religious issues related to safety, justice, morality, reproductive rights, and enhancement; and regulatory issues including the necessity of public input and oversight and the influence of commercialization. Their goal is to open a dialogue engaging not only scholars and scientists but also government officials and concerned citizens. The authors conclude that while IGM cannot be carried out safely and responsibly on humans utilizing current methods, it is important to begin public discussion now to determine whether, and if so how, to proceed.

Ethical Deliberation in Multiprofessional Health Care Teams Cover

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Ethical Deliberation in Multiprofessional Health Care Teams

Edited by Hubert Doucet, Jean-Marc Larouche and Kenneth R. Melchin

This study analyzes both pragmatic and theoretical perspectives of ethical deliberation, as well as the professional and philosophical backgrounds for the ethical deliberation of social workers, nurses and doctors working in the field of chronic illness. In doing so, this volume expands the scope of current research through an analysis of the process and its dynamics.

Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease Cover

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Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease

edited by Ruth B. Purtilo, Ph.D., and Henk A.M.J. ten Have, M.D., Ph.D. foreword by Christine K. Cassel, M.D.

Alzheimer disease afflicts more than twelve million people worldwide, and its incidence is increasing at a staggering rate. People with the disorder are living longer than have those in previous generations, and they require interventions for quality-of-life issues associated with palliative care. However, the symptoms of Alzheimer disease often fail to place such persons into settings where palliative care resources are available to them. Indeed, clinicians and other caregivers may be unsure about what constitutes effective palliation in these cases. At the same time, the ethical issues involved in providing end-of-life care to persons with Alzheimer disease remain on the margins of mainstream bioethics. In Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease, leading ethicists and clinicians from the United States and Europe explore ethical and scientific concerns about the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer disease, challenges arising from applying palliative procedures to its symptoms, key philosophical and theological concepts central to our understanding of the disease and to end-of-life decisions, and the changing patterns of relevant medical, social, and economic policies. Cross-cultural, multidisciplinary, and state-of-the-art, this volume is a unique and important resource for bioethicists, clinicians, and policy makers everywhere. Contributors: David A. Bennahum, M.D., University of New Mexico; Pierre Boitte, Ph.D., Catholic University of Lille, France; Roger A. Brumback, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Wim J. M. Dekkers, M.D., Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Elizabeth Furlong, R.N., Ph.D., J.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Eugenijus Gefenas, M.D., Ph.D., Vilnius University, Lithuania; Bert Gordijn, Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Amy M. Haddad, R.N., Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Søren Holm, M.D., Ph.D., Dr.Med.Sci., University of Manchester; Franz J. Illhardt, D.D., Ph.D., Freiburg University; Rien Janssens, Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Givi Javashvili, M.D., Ph.D., State Medical Academy of Georgia, Tbilisi; Judith Lee Kissell, Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Gunilla Nordenram, D.D.S., Ph.D., Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Richard L. O'Brien, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert, M.D., Ph.D., University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Winifred J. Ellenchild Pinch, R.N., Ed.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Patricio F. Reyes, M.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Anne-Sophie Rigaud, M.D., Ph.D., Hôpital Broca, Paris; Linda S. Scheirton, Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center; Jos V. M. Welie, M.Med.S., J.D., Ph.D., Creighton University Medical Center.

Ethical Imperialism Cover

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Ethical Imperialism

Institutional Review Boards and the Social Sciences, 1965–2009

Zachary M. Schrag

University researchers in the United States seeking to observe, survey, or interview people are required first to complete ethical training courses and to submit their proposals to an institutional review board (IRB). Under current rules, IRBs have the power to deny funding, degrees, or promotion if their recommended modifications to scholars’ proposals are not followed. This volume explains how this system of regulation arose and discusses its chilling effects on research in the social sciences and humanities. Zachary M. Schrag draws on original research and interviews with the key shapers of the institutional review board regime to raise important points about the effect of the IRB process on scholarship. He explores the origins and the application of these regulations and analyzes how the rules—initially crafted to protect the health and privacy of the human subjects of medical experiments—can limit even casual scholarly interactions such as a humanist interviewing a poet about his or her writing. In assessing the issue, Schrag argues that biomedical researchers and bioethicists repeatedly excluded social scientists from rule making and ignored the existing ethical traditions in nonmedical fields. Ultimately, he contends, IRBs not only threaten to polarize medical and social scientists, they also create an atmosphere wherein certain types of academics can impede and even silence others. The first work to document the troubled emergence of today's system of regulating scholarly research, Ethical Imperialism illuminates the problems caused by simple, universal rule making in academic and professional research. This short, smart analysis will engage scholars across academia.

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Ethics for International Medicine

A Practical Guide for Aid Workers in Developing Countries

Anji E. Wall

In recent years, international medicine has become a growth industry. International aid organizations, religious organizations, and medical schools all provide opportunities for health care workers to travel to developing countries to provide needed medical care to the world's poorest citizens.

Medical aid workers from the West encounter many challenges. They serve in settings with limited medical supplies, facilities, and personnel. Their patients speak different languages, have different cultures, and may even have different interpretations of disease. They have limited time in which to provide medical care to hundreds of people. In such circumstances, ethical dilemmas abound, and many health care practitioners, both novice and expert, are unprepared to manage them.

This volume provides medical aid workers with a method for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues within the context of international medicine. It also presents a series of cases, representative of the ethical issues they are likely to encounter, that illustrate the use of that method. Designating four areas in which good intentions may go awry because of miscommunication and misunderstanding between health care provider and patient - Medical Facts, Goals and Values, Norms, and Limitations - Dr. Wall develops an invaluable tool for individuals and health organizations seeking to serve in developing countries throughout the world.

Ethics in Mental Health and Deafness Cover

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Ethics in Mental Health and Deafness

Virginia Gutman, Editor

This volume explores ethical issues specific to working with deaf clients, particularly matters of confidentiality, managing multiple relationships, and the clinician’s competency to provide services, particularly in communicating with and understanding deaf people. Led by editor Virginia Gutman, a unique assembly of respected mental health professionals share their experiences and knowledge in working with deaf clients. Irene Leigh commences Ethics in Mental Health and Deafness with her varied experiences as a deaf mental health practitioner, and Gutman follows with insights on ethics in the “small world” of the Deaf community. William McCrone discusses the law and ethics, and Patrick Brice considers ethical issues regarding deaf children, adolescents, and their families. In contrast, Janet Pray addresses concerns about deaf and hard of hearing older clients. Minority deaf populations pose additional ethical aspects, which are detailed by Carolyn Corbett. Kathleen Peoples explores the challenges of training professionals in mental health services specifically for deaf clients. Closely related to these topics is the influence of interpreters with deaf clients in mental health settings, which Lynnette Taylor thoroughly treats. Ethics and Mental Health in Deafness also features a chapter on genetic counseling and testing for deafness by Kathleen Arnos. The final section, written by Robert Pollard, examines ethical conduct in research with deaf people, a fitting conclusion to a volume that will become required reading for all professionals and students in this discipline.

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