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Four Centuries of Canadian Nursing
Nursing has a long and varied history in Canada. Since the founding of the first hospital by the Augustine nuns in 1637, nurses have contributed greatly to Canadians' quality of life.
On All Frontiers is a comprehensive history of Canadian nursing. Editors Christina Bates, Dianne Dodd, and Nicole Rousseau have brought together a vast body of research into one volume. Authored by leading experts, the chapters and vignettes form an overview of the history of Canadian nursing to date.
From the midwives of early Canada to urban public health nurses, from remote outposts to the battlefields of Europe, On All Frontiers documents the hardships, challenges, and achievements of Canadian nurses. Richly illustrated with archival photographs, it will prove essential to scholars of Canadian health care history.
Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945–1960
Ontario Boys explores the preoccupation with boyhood in Ontario during the immediate postwar period, 1945–1960. It argues that a traditional version of boyhood was being rejuvenated in response to a population fraught with uncertainty, and suffering from insecurity, instability, and gender anxiety brought on by depression-era and wartime disruptions in marital, familial, and labour relations, as well as mass migration, rapid postwar economic changes, the emergence of the Cold War, and the looming threat of atomic annihilation. In this sociopolitical and cultural context, concerned adults began to cast the fate of the postwar world onto children, in particular boys.
In the decade and a half immediately following World War II, the version of boyhood that became the ideal was one that stressed selflessness, togetherness, honesty, fearlessness, frank determination, and emotional toughness. It was thought that investing boys with this version of masculinity was essential if they were to grow into the kind of citizens capable of governing, protecting, and defending the nation, and, of course, maintaining and regulating the social order.
Drawing on a wide variety of sources, Ontario Boys demonstrates that, although girls were expected and encouraged to internalize a “special kind” of citizenship, as caregivers and educators of children and nurturers of men, the gendered content and language employed indicated that active public citizenship and democracy was intended for boys. An “appropriate” boyhood in the postwar period became, if nothing else, a metaphor for the survival of the nation.
Making a Capital - Constuire une capitale
Ottawa - Making a Capital is a collection of 24 never-before published essays in English and in French on the history of Ottawa. It brings together leading historians, archeologists and archivists whose work reveals the rich tapestry of the city. Pre-contact society, French Canadian voyageurs, the early civil service, the first labour organizers and Jewish peddlers are among the many fascinating topics covered. Readers will also learn about the origins of local street names, the Great Fire of 1900, Ottawa's multicultural past, the demise of its streetcar system, Ottawa's transformation during the Second World War and the significance of federal government architecture. This book is an indispensable collection for those interested in local history and the history of Canada's capital.
Ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada's Northwest Territories
For fifty years anthropologist June Helm studied the culture and ethnohistory of the Dene, “The People,” the Athapaskan-speaking Indians of the Mackenzie River drainage of Canada's western subarctic. Now in this impressive collection she brings together previously published essays—with updated commentaries where necessary—unpublished field notes, archival documents, supplementary essays and notes from collaborators, and narratives by the Dene themselves as an offering to those studying North American Indians, hunter-gatherers, and subarctic ethnohistory and as a historical resource for the people of all ethnicities who live in Denendeh, Land of the Dene.
Helm begins with a broad-ranging, stimulating overview of the social organization of hunter-gatherer peoples of the world, past and present, that provides a background for all she has learned about the Dene. The chapters in part 1 focus on community and daily life among the Mackenzie Dene in the middle of the twentieth century. After two historical overview chapters, Helm moves from the early years of the twentieth century to the earliest contacts between Dene and white culture, ending with a look at the momentous changes in Dene-government relations in the 1970s. Part 3 considers traditional Dene knowledge, meaning, and enjoyments, including a chapter on the Dogrib hand game. Throughout, Helm's encyclopedic knowledge combines with her personal interactions to create a collection that is unique in its breadth and intensity.
Butter, Margarine and the Rise of Urban Culture in Canada
For Canada the last century was one of great social and economic change: an increasingly urban population witnessed shifts from an agricultural to a mixed economy and from moderate to greater wealth. Heick chronicles how changing attitudes toward butter and margarine reflected the nature of that society. He demonstrates how the ban on the manufacture, importation, and sale of margarine was instigated in 1986 at the behest of the nascent, yet influential diary industry, particularly in Ontario. This ban was based on the premise that margarine was not a pure food. Despite the lifting of the ban in 1918–23, margarine would only appear as a permanent fixture of the Canadian food spectrum after World War II. The author contends that post-World War II urbanization, and a desire to enjoy a more prosperous life after wartime stringencies, were instrumental in this change. It was increasingly difficult for the Canadian diary industry to meet the nation’s growing dairy requirements. Margarine was no longer viewed as impure; in fact it was now recognized as being a wholesome food and substitute for butter.
Heick’s important study of the Canadian butter/margarine competition brings to light how the lengthy debate manifested itself in political, economic and social milieux.
Historical Case Studies
Four cases in which the legal issue was “race” — that of a Chinese restaurant owner who was fined for employing a white woman; a black man who was refused service in a bar; a Jew who wanted to buy a cottage but was prevented by the property owners’ association; and a Trinidadian of East Indian descent who was acceptable to the Canadian army but was rejected for immigration on grounds of “race” — drawn from the period between 1914 and 1955, are intimately examined to explore the role of the Supreme Court of Canada and the law in the racialization of Canadian society. With painstaking research into contemporary attitudes and practices, Walker demonstrates that Supreme Court Justices were expressing the prevailing “common sense” about “race” in their legal decisions. He shows that injustice on the grounds of “race” has been chronic in Canadian history, and that the law itself was once instrumental in creating these circumstances. The book concludes with a controversial discussion of current directions in Canadian law and their potential impact on Canada’s future as a multicultural society.
Racial Attitudes in English-Canadian Fiction is a critical overview of the appearances and consequences of racism in English-Canadian fiction published between 1905 and 1980.
Based on an analysis of traditional expressions in literature of group solidarity and resentment, the study screens English-Canadian novels for fictional representations of such feelings. Beginning with the English-Canadian reaction to the mass influx of immigrants into Western Canada after World War One, it examines the fiction of novelists such as Ralph Connor and Nellie McClung. The author then suggests that the cumulative effect of a number of individual voices, such as Grove and Salverson, constituted a counter-reaction which has been made more positive by Laurence, Lysenko, Richler and Clarke. The “debate” between these two sides, carried on in fictional and non-fictional writing, is seen to be in part resolved in synthesis after World War Two, as attitudes are forced by wartime alliances and intellectual pressures into a qualified liberalism. The author shows how single novels by Graham, Bodsworth, and Callaghan demonstrated a new concern for the exposure and eradication of racial discrimination, an attitude taken further by the works of Wiebe and Klein.
The book concentrates on single texts that best portray deliberately or not, racist ideology or anti-racist arguments, and attempts to explain the arousal in Canada of such ideas.
Continuités et ruptures d'un projet national
Entre histoire et mémoire, entre passé et présent,les États généraux du Canada français représentent plus que ce qui a été dit et fait lors des assises tenues de 1966 à 1969 à Montréal : ils informent sur ce que sont devenues les relations entre communautés francophones, jusqu’à fournir la mesure de leur identité contemporaine et celle de leur avenir partagé. Au-delà de leur place tristement célèbre dans l’historiographie et la conscience collective comme symbole de l’éclatement du Canada français, que retient-on des États généraux du Canada français, près de cinquante ans après leur tenue ? Qu’inspirent-ils aux regards contemporains comme constats, enjeux, stratégies, voire projets collectifs ? Que disent-ils de ce qu’a été le Canada français, de l’évolution de ses collectivités, des relations qu’elles nouent entre elles ? Que leur doivent le Québec et les francophonies canadiennes minoritaires ? Après une mise en perspective historique et sociologique des États généraux du Canada français, l’ouvrage revient sur leur réception dans la francophonie canadienne, plus variée selon les milieux sociaux qu’il est coutume de le penser. Il explore les configurations des rapports entre les communautés francophones au Québec et hors Québec, sous le signe de la francophonie canadienne et de la francophonie internationale, et dans le cadre de la nouvelle Constitution canadienne et des politiques de bilinguisme et de multiculturalisme. Il propose enfin une réflexion plus large sur le mode d’institutionnalisation propre aux nations minoritaires, sans État souverain.
The Path to Cultural Complexity in the Gulf of Georgia
This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the northwest coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500–1100 BP) and Marpole (2000–1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the northwest coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical model developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon, but much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously thought. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island. In contrast, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish showed no sign of Marpole culture, but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not merely a statistical anomaly.