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History > Canadian History

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Ontario Boys Cover

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Ontario Boys

Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945–1960

Ontario Boys explores the preoccupation with boyhood in Ontario during the immediate postwar period, 1945–1960. It argues that a traditional version of boyhood was being rejuvenated in response to a population fraught with uncertainty, and suffering from insecurity, instability, and gender anxiety brought on by depression-era and wartime disruptions in marital, familial, and labour relations, as well as mass migration, rapid postwar economic changes, the emergence of the Cold War, and the looming threat of atomic annihilation. In this sociopolitical and cultural context, concerned adults began to cast the fate of the postwar world onto children, in particular boys.

In the decade and a half immediately following World War II, the version of boyhood that became the ideal was one that stressed selflessness, togetherness, honesty, fearlessness, frank determination, and emotional toughness. It was thought that investing boys with this version of masculinity was essential if they were to grow into the kind of citizens capable of governing, protecting, and defending the nation, and, of course, maintaining and regulating the social order.

Drawing on a wide variety of sources, Ontario Boys demonstrates that, although girls were expected and encouraged to internalize a “special kind” of citizenship, as caregivers and educators of children and nurturers of men, the gendered content and language employed indicated that active public citizenship and democracy was intended for boys. An “appropriate” boyhood in the postwar period became, if nothing else, a metaphor for the survival of the nation.

Ottawa Cover

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Ottawa

Making a Capital - Constuire une capitale

Edited by / Sous la direction de Jeff Keshen and Nicole St-Onge

Ottawa - Making a Capital is a collection of 24 never-before published essays in English and in French on the history of Ottawa. It brings together leading historians, archeologists and archivists whose work reveals the rich tapestry of the city. Pre-contact society, French Canadian voyageurs, the early civil service, the first labour organizers and Jewish peddlers are among the many fascinating topics covered. Readers will also learn about the origins of local street names, the Great Fire of 1900, Ottawa's multicultural past, the demise of its streetcar system, Ottawa's transformation during the Second World War and the significance of federal government architecture. This book is an indispensable collection for those interested in local history and the history of Canada's capital.

The People of Denendeh Cover

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The People of Denendeh

Ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada's Northwest Territories

June Helm

 

For fifty years anthropologist June Helm studied the culture and ethnohistory of the Dene, “The People,” the Athapaskan-speaking Indians of the Mackenzie River drainage of Canada's western subarctic. Now in this impressive collection she brings together previously published essays—with updated commentaries where necessary—unpublished field notes, archival documents, supplementary essays and notes from collaborators, and narratives by the Dene themselves as an offering to those studying North American Indians, hunter-gatherers, and subarctic ethnohistory and as a historical resource for the people of all ethnicities who live in Denendeh, Land of the Dene.

Helm begins with a broad-ranging, stimulating overview of the social organization of hunter-gatherer peoples of the world, past and present, that provides a background for all she has learned about the Dene. The chapters in part 1 focus on community and daily life among the Mackenzie Dene in the middle of the twentieth century. After two historical overview chapters, Helm moves from the early years of the twentieth century to the earliest contacts between Dene and white culture, ending with a look at the momentous changes in Dene-government relations in the 1970s. Part 3 considers traditional Dene knowledge, meaning, and enjoyments, including a chapter on the Dogrib hand game. Throughout, Helm's encyclopedic knowledge combines with her personal interactions to create a collection that is unique in its breadth and intensity.

Quebec and Its Historians Cover

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Quebec and Its Historians

The Twentieth Century

Serge Gagnon

“Race,” Rights and the Law in the Supreme Court of Canada Cover

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“Race,” Rights and the Law in the Supreme Court of Canada

Historical Case Studies

Four cases in which the legal issue was “race” — that of a Chinese restaurant owner who was fined for employing a white woman; a black man who was refused service in a bar; a Jew who wanted to buy a cottage but was prevented by the property owners’ association; and a Trinidadian of East Indian descent who was acceptable to the Canadian army but was rejected for immigration on grounds of “race” — drawn from the period between 1914 and 1955, are intimately examined to explore the role of the Supreme Court of Canada and the law in the racialization of Canadian society. With painstaking research into contemporary attitudes and practices, Walker demonstrates that Supreme Court Justices were expressing the prevailing “common sense” about “race” in their legal decisions. He shows that injustice on the grounds of “race” has been chronic in Canadian history, and that the law itself was once instrumental in creating these circumstances. The book concludes with a controversial discussion of current directions in Canadian law and their potential impact on Canada’s future as a multicultural society.

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Rewriting Marpole

The Path to Cultural Complexity in the Gulf of Georgia

Terence N. Clark

This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the northwest coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500–1100 BP) and Marpole (2000–1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the northwest coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical model developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon, but much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously thought. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island. In contrast, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish showed no sign of Marpole culture, but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not merely a statistical anomaly.

Rhetoric and the Discourses of Power in Court Culture Cover

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Rhetoric and the Discourses of Power in Court Culture

China, Europe, and Japan

edited by David R. Knechtges and Eugene Vance

Key royal courts - in Han, Tang, and Song dynasty China; medieval and renaissance Europe; and Heian and Muromach Japan--are examined in this comparative and interdisciplinary volume as loci of power and as entities that establish, influence, or counter the norms of a larger society. Contributions by twelve scholars are organized into sections on the rhetoric of persuasion, taste, communication, gender, and natural nobility.

Sans frontières Cover

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Sans frontières

Quatre siècles de soins infirmiers canadiens

Sous la direction de Christina Bates, Dianne Dodd et Nicole Rousseau

Depuis la fondation du premier hôpital par les Augustines en 1637, les infirmières ont grandement contribué à la qualité de vie des Canadiens. Des sages-femmes à l’aube de l’histoire du pays aux infirmières du réseau public de santé contemporain, des postes éloignés nordiques aux champs de bataille en Europe, Sans frontières dépeint les épreuves, les défis et les réalisations des infirmières canadiennes sur une période de quatre siècles. Documentée et écrite par les infirmières et des historiennes, cette oeuvre unique rassemble en un seul volume un vaste éventail de recherches. Quatorze chapitres et 28 vignettes, superbement rehaussés de photographies et d’illustrations d’archives, composent cet impressionnant portrait du nursing canadien. Sans frontières est un ouvrage fascinant et indispensable pour les infirmières, les férus d’histoire, et toute personne dont la vie a été touchée par une infirmière.

Seven Eggs Today Cover

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Seven Eggs Today

The Diaries of Mary Armstrong, 1859 and 1869

Offers an intriguing glimpse into the daily life of an average Toronto woman in the mid-nineteenth century.

Mary Armstrong’s diaries are a window into the daily life of a middle-class woman in a new and changing land, and a revealing account of life in early Toronto just before and after confederation. Her journals are one of very few published by Canadian women, especially women outside the upper classes, in the decades surrounding the mid-nineteenth century.

Mary Armstrong was the wife of a butcher / farmer who lived in what is now the Yorkville and Deer Park area of Toronto from the 1830s to the 1880s. She had immigrated with her parents and siblings from England in 1834. Her diaries, which cover five months in 1859 and eight months in 1869, reflect her multiplicity of interests and concerns including family, women’s work, faith, status and class, occupation and trade, community networks, and local and national identity.

Jackson W. Armstrong’s introduction examines who Mary was, what her world was like, and how she saw her own place in it; it also explains the origin and history of the diaries. His extensive primary research supports the well-annotated diaries, and gives contextual information on the events, people, and places that Mary mentions.

Seven Eggs Today offers new information and a new perspective on mid-Victorian English Canada, and will be welcomed by general readers and scholars interested in colonial life, biography, immigrant experiences, family or local history, or women’s studies.

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Shining Big Sea Water

The Story of Lake Superior

Norman K. Risjord

In Shining Big Sea Water, historian Norman K. Risjord offers a grand tour of Lake Superior's remarkable history, taking readers through the centuries and into the lives of those who have traveled the lake and inhabited its shores. Through lively, informative chapters, Risjord begins with the lake's cataclysmic geological birth, then explores the lives of native peoples along the shore before European contact and during the fur trade, showing how Superior functioned as a "blue-water highway" for Indians, early explorers, industries, and settlers. He outlines the development of such cities as Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; Ashland, Wisconsin; and Two Harbors, Minnesota, and tells the fascinating histories of life-saving lighthouses and famous shipwrecks. In the final chapter, Risjord looks to the future, offering a clear-eyed account of the environmental and economic challenges faced by America's largest freshwater lake. Interspersed throughout the book are handy tips for travelers, highlighting historically significant sites that illustrate key pieces of Lake Superior's natural and human history, including national lakeshores in the United States and provincial parks in Canada.

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