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The 1956 Hungarian Revolution Cover

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The 1956 Hungarian Revolution

Hungarian and Canadian Perspectives

edited by Christopher Adam, Tibor Egervari, Leslie Laczko & Judy Young

In October 1956, a spontaneous uprising took Hungarian Communist authorities by surprise, prompting Soviet authorities to invade the country. After a few days of violent fighting, the revolt was crushed. In the wake of the event, some 200,000 refugees left Hungary, 35,000 of whom made their way to Canada. This would be the first time Canada would accept so many refugees of a single origin, setting a precedent for later refugee initiatives. More than fifty years later, this collection focuses on the impact of the revolution in Hungary, in Canada, and around the world.

The American response to Canada since 1776  Cover

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The American response to Canada since 1776

Gordon T. Stewart

Canadians long have engaged in in-depth, wide-ranging discussions about their nation's relations with the United States. On the other hand, American citizens usually have been satisfied to accept a series of unexamined myths about their country's unchanging, benign partnership with the "neighbor to the north". Although such perceptions of uninterrupted, friendly relations with Canada may dominate American popular opinion, not to mention discussions in many American scholarly and political circles, they should not, according to Stewart, form the bases for long-term U.S. international economic, political, and cultural relations with Canada. Stewart describes and analyzes the evolution of U.S. policymaking and U.S. policy thinking toward Canada, from the tense and confrontational post-Revolutionary years to the signing of the Free Trade Agreement in 1988, to discover if there are any permanent characteristics of American policies and attitudes with respect to Canada. American policymakers were concerned for much of the period before World War II with Canada's role in the British empire, often regarded as threatening, or at least troubling, to developing U.S. hegemony in North America and even, in the late nineteenth century, to U.S. trade across the Pacific. A permanent goal of U.S. policymakers was to disengage Canada from that empire. They also thought that Canada's natural geographic and economic orientation was southward to the U.S., and policymakers were critical of Canadian efforts to construct an east- west economy. The Free Trade Agreement of 1988 which prepared the way for north-south lines of economic force, in this context, had been an objective of U.S. foreign policy since the founding of the republic in 1776. At the same time, however, these deep-seated U.S. goals were often undermined by domestic lobbies and political factors within the U.S., most evidently during the era of high tariffs from the 1860s to the 1930s when U.S. tariff policies actually encouraged a separate, imperially-backed economic and cultural direction in Canada. When the dramatic shift toward integration in trade, investment, defense and even popular culture began to take hold in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s in the wake of the Depression and World War II, American policymakers viewed themselves as working in harmony with underlying, "natural" converging economic, political and cultural trends recognized and accepted by their Canadian counterparts.

Artisans de la modernité Cover

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Artisans de la modernité

Les centres culturels en Ontario français

Diane Farmer

Au milieu du XXe siècle, soit au cours du passage de la société traditionnelle au monde contemporain, l’Ontario français a connu une rupture définitive dans son organisation sociale. C’est à ce moment que les Franco-Ontariens mettent sur pied un réseau unique de centres culturels, véritables foyers d’intégration d’une collectivité éclatée. Existe-t-il un lien entre ces deux phénomènes ? Pour répondre à cette question, Diane Farmer décrit les mécanismes de maintien et de transformation de l’identité franco-ontarienne en soulignant le rôle primordial du centre culturel dans ce processus. Elle analyse l’émergence et le fonctionnement de quatre centres culturels de l’Est et du Nord-Est, de même que la dynamique communautaire dans laquelle chacun inscrit son action. Cette étude lui permet de préciser les éléments qui assurent la cohésion du groupe et de cerner dans quelle mesure il y a création d’un espace francophone en Ontario.

Au fil des ans Cover

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Au fil des ans

L'Union catholique des fermières de la province d'Ontario de 1936 à 1945

Estelle Huneault

L’Union catholiques des fermières de la province d’Ontario, connue aujourd’hui sous le nom de l’Union culturelle des Franco-Ontariennes, est, depuis soixante ans, très active dans les milieux francophones ontariens. Dans cet ouvrage, Estelle Huneault a étudié un domaine peu exploré concernant les circonstances qui ont amené les femmes rurales franco-ontariennes des années trente à se regrouper dans une association autonome, francophone et catholique. Elle a brillamment démontré que les luttes de pouvoir entre la hiérarchie catholique et les dirigeants de l’État québécois ont eu des répercussions sur l’organisation et sur les orientations qui ont été prises par l’Union catholique des fermières en Ontario, association fondée en vue de favoriser l’émancipation de cette catégorie des femmes. Adoptant une approche féministe matérialiste, l’analyse de l’auteure a permis de constater que les pouvoirs étatiques et ecclésiastiques se sont approprié le mouvement des femmes rurales franco-ontariennes pour en faire une organisation répondant à leurs conceptions du rôle des femmes dans la société.

Au service du Canada Cover

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Au service du Canada

Histoire du Royal Military College depuis la Deuxième Guerre mondiale

Richard Preston

En 1965, le Canada reçut son nouveau drapeau ; ce événement reflétait les grands changements qui s’étaient produits au cours des vingt années qui avaient suivi la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : la société canadienne était devenue hautement industrialisée, à l’avant-garde de la technologie et cosmopolite. Ce nouveau drapeau s’inspirait de celui qui flottait depuis des années au Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), ce qui lui donnait, par le fait même, une signification qui allait bien au-delà du simple souci esthétique, le développement du RMC étant intimement lié à celui du Canada. Durant les quarante dernières années, le RMC a su s’adapter à plusieurs changements. C’est ainsi que, devenant un lieu d’apprentissage privilégié et l’une des plus importantes universités du pays, il a formé des officiers professionnels de carrière. Le RMC a su relever les défis que représentaient, entre autres, l’intégration militaire et l’unification des forces, le bilinguisme, l’émergence du Collège militaire royal et du Royal Roads Military College, l’arrivée des femmes dans des rôles non traditionnels, les aspects culturels changeants du Canada et la montée fulgurante des nouvelles technologies. Dans un monde où les préceptes de la vie militaire apparaissent de plus en plus abstraits, la compétition constante que se livrent les candidats désirant être admis au RMC est la preuve irréfutable de sa pérennité comme lieu de savoir et de leadership.

Aux origines de l'identité franco-ontarien Cover

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Aux origines de l'identité franco-ontarien

Éducation, culture, économie

Chad Gaffield

Durant les années 1880, les francophones de l’est de l’Ontario ont formulé une définition de leur communauté à la fois enracinée dans le passé et issue de circonstance contemporaines. En effet, c’est par suite de la controverse sur la langue d’enseignement en Ontario qu’émergeait l’identité franco-ontarienne. À partir de 1830, l’est de l’Ontario, surtout le comté de Prescott, est le point de jonction géographique des Canadas anglais et français, la boucle de la ceinture bilingue. Ainsi, l’immigration en provenance du Québec transforme cette région, d’une zone frontière où vit une population anglophone clairsemée, en un secteur à majorité francophone. Dès lors, toute l’attention de la province se tourne vers ce comté ; la controverse sur la langue d’enseignement s’intensifie particulièrement après 1885, alors que le gouvernement ontarien adopte une série de mesures destinées à restreindre l’utilisation du français dans les écoles de la province. Chad Gaffield examine ici la question linguistique par rapport à l’histoire sociale et à l’identité culturelle de l’est de l’Ontario. Il compare directement les écrits des autorités et des divers dirigeants sociaux au XIXe siècle en Ontario avec les opinions et l’expérience réelles des résidents de cette région.

Barren Grounds Cover

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Barren Grounds

The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip

Skip Pessl

In 1955 Arthur Moffatt led an expedition consisting of young college students and recent graduates to the Inuit lands of Nunavut, Canada, to follow the path of the 1893 Tyrrell expedition and to film and photograph the group’s progress. The expedition, a 900-mile epic journey across the Barren Lands of Arctic Canada, has stirred controversy and criticism for over fifty years. The trip has been variously described as “the pioneering venture in modern recreational canoe travel” and as “an excellent example of how not to conduct a canoe trip.” Delays took their toll on the adventurers, exhausted by the seemingly endless paddling through unknown rivers and lakes, the trek across the windswept tundra, and torment by voracious insects. Threatened with diminishing food reserves and increasingly harsh weather, the members of the expedition were forced to travel with greater speed and less caution, and ultimately a fatal mistake was made. Two of the canoes capsized, dumping four men into the frigid waters. Moffatt, the leader, died of exposure. It took the survivors ten days of arduous travel with minimum food and equipment to reach the safety of the Hudson’s Bay Company post.

Barren Grounds features passages from the journals of two young Moffatt party members and excerpts about the 1893 expedition of Joseph Burr Tyrrell, along with entries from the journal of Art Moffatt himself.

Part cautionary tale, part nail-biting adventure, the book will appeal to outdoorsmen and armchair adventurers alike.

The Battle for Berlin, Ontario Cover

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The Battle for Berlin, Ontario

An Historical Drama

In August 1914, Berlin, Ontario, settled largely by people of German origin, was a thriving, peaceful city. By the spring of 1915 it was a city torn apart by the tensions of war. By September 1916, Berlin had become Kitchener. It began with the need to raise a battalion of 1,100 men to support the British war effort.

Meeting with resistance from a peace-loving community and spurred on by the jingoistic nationalism that demanded troops to fight the hated “Hun,” frustrated soldiers began assaulting citizens in the streets and, on one infamous occasion, a Lutheran clergyman in his parsonage. Out of this turmoil arose a movement to rid the city of its German name, and this campaign, together with the recruiting efforts, made 1916 the most turbulent year in Kitchener’s history.

This is the story of the men and women involved in these battles, the soldiers, the civic officials, the business leaders, and the innocent bystanders, and how they behaved in the face of conditions they had never before experienced.

Becoming Tsimshian Cover

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Becoming Tsimshian

The Social Life of Names

by Christopher F. Roth

The Tsimshian people of coastal British Columbia use a system of hereditary name-titles in which names are treated as objects of inheritable wealth. Human agency and social status reside in names rather than in the individuals who hold these names, and the politics of succession associated with names and name-taking rituals have been, and continue to be, at the center of Tsimshian life.

Between a Rock and a Hard Place Cover

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Between a Rock and a Hard Place

A Historical Geography of the Finns in the Sudbury Area

Where else can that well-known phrase be better applied than to a study of the Finns in Sudbury? “Rock” defines the physical reality of the Sudbury setting: rugged hills, mines, farms and forests set in the Precambrian Shield. “Hard” defines the human setting: Finnish immigrants having to contend with the problems and stresses of relocating to a new culture, with livelihoods that required great endurance as well as a tolerance for hazardous conditions.

Since 1883 Finnish immigrants in Sudbury, men and women alike, have striven to improve their lot through the options available to them. Despite great obstacles, the Finns never flagged in their unwavering fight for workers’ rights and the union movement. And as agricultural settlers, labour reformers, builders of churches, halls, saunas and athletic fields, Finns left an indelible imprint on the physical and human landscape. In the process they have played an integral part in the transformation of Sudbury from a small struggling rail town to its present role as regional capital of northwestern Ontario.

This penetrating study of the cultural geography of the Finns in the Sudbury region provides an international, national and local framework for analysis — a model for future studies of other cultural groups.

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